Words starting with ” p ” for SAT, GRE, GMAT, CAT skmclasses Bangalore

pac man defense – a stratagem, to prevent a hostile takeover, by which the target company tries to acquire the bidder

pace (Latin) – with due deference to; used to acknowledge politely someone with whom the writer disagrees

Short Story describing the meaning of the word pace is at


pagan (etymology) – from Latin for villager, rustic. Tied to “nature worship” because conservative villagers clung to the old nature gods after the Christianization of Roman towns and cities. (alternate reason for that tie: ‘villager’ was Roman military-slang for an incompetent soldier, and the early church, with its military image, picked up this concept for “those outside the Church Militant”.)

pahoehoe – lava with a smooth, glassy or rippled surface

paint-by-numbers – depreciative: merely mechanical or formulaic (rather than imaginative, original, or natural)

palace revolution – overthrow of a ruler by those who are already in the ruling group


Palavering – Have a lengthy discussion, usually between people of different backgrounds

Palavering Speak about unimportant matters rapidly incessantly


Palfrey – a docile horse ridden especially by women

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Palfrey is at


Palimpsest – a manuscript on which more than one text has been written atop an earlier one which, incompletely erased, is visible; also, an object or a place whose older layers or aspects are apparent beneath its surface

palindrome – a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward

Palladian – 1. relating to wisdom or study 2. of the neoclassical major architectural style that was extremely popular in 18th century Britain

Palladian relating to wisdom or study by men

Palliate – 1. to mitigate 2. to extenuate [i.e., 1. to make (pain or disease) less severe 2. to make fault or crime seem less severe, with excuses and apologies]

pallid – 1. of abnormally pale or wan complexion 2. lacking intensity of color or luminousness 3. [metaphorically] lacking radiance or vitality; dull:

pallid prose

palooka – slang: an incompetent or easily defeated athlete (esp. a prizefighter); also, a stupid or clumsy person.

palter – 1. to equivocate or prevaricate 2. (palter with) to trifle with.

paludal – 1. relating to swamps and marshes; palustrine. 2. malarial

palustrine – relating to swamps and marshes

panache – dashing or flamboyant in style

panama hat – toponym: (picture here) a man’s wide-brimmed hat of straw-like material

pandemic – affecting a large part of the population over a wide geographical area; epidemic over a wide geographical area (contrast endemic, epidemic)

pandemonium – 1. an utterly lawless, riotous place or assemblage; also, (by extension) wild uproar or noise. 2. the great hall or council chamber of demons or evil spirits. Coined by John Milton in “Paradise Lost” (1667) from Gk. pan- “all” + L.L. dæmonium “evil spirit”. Transferred sense “place of uproar” is from 1779.

pandit – a wise or learned man in India (often used as an honorary title) [An alternative form is pundit.]

pandora’s box – a source of many unforeseen troubles

Panegyric – an oration or eulogy in praise of some person or achievement

Panegyric elaborate and poetic compliment; eulogy; laudation

Short Story describing the meaning of the word ” Panegyric ” is at


Panglossian – eponym: blindly optimistic; of the view that “this is the best of all possible worlds”

panjandrum; grand panjandrum – an important person, or a pompously self-important person

panoply – a splendid or impressive array

Pantagruelian – eponym: coarsely and extravagantly satirical

pantile – a roofing tile with a S-shape; laid so that curves overlap

pantograph – a mechanical device for copying plans, diagrams, etc., on any desired scale. A stylus, tracing over the original, drives a pen that produces the copy.

papabile – [pl. papabili] a viable candidate to be elected pope, or for other high office

paparazzi (etymology) – from the surname of a character in Fellini’s 1959 film “La Dolce Vita.”

Papierkrieg – German: obsessively complicated paperwork, seemingly (or actually) designed to make you give up in frustration

parable (also here) – rhetoric: a story told to convey moral or religious lesson; an allegory

parabola – a certain geometrical curve (a thrown ball travels in a parabola as it rises and then falls to the ground)

paradiddle – drumming: a pattern of four basic beats, alternating sticks. One of the 26 rudiments of drumming.

paradigm – linguistic sense: a list of word forms (a nominal paradigm is usually called a declension and a verbal paradigm a conjugation)

paradigm – something that serves as a model, example, or pattern

paradigm we are all tied to our own boxes

paralambdacism – a speech disorder involving underuse of the l-sound (contrast lambdacism)

paralogism – an illogical argument, a fallacy, esp. one which the reasoner is unconscious of or believes to be logical (contrast sophism)

paramagnetic – very weakly attracted by a magnet, but not retaining any permanent magnetism (contrast ferromagnetic; see Curry point)

paramo – a high, bleak plateau or district, with stunted trees, and cold, damp atmosphere, as in the Andes

paranoia – any unjustified, excessive fear of the actions or motives of others (medical sense: a persistent delusional system, usually on the theme of persecution or exaggerated personal importance)

paranymph – 1. a best man, or groomsman, or a bridesmaid (term is gender-neutral) 2. one who woos or solicits for another; an advocate, spokesman, or orator, who speaks in behalf of another.

paraphernalia – miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity

Paraphilia – sexual perversions; sexual behavior generally considered unacceptable by society. Any abnormal sexual attraction

Paraphilia sexual perversions sexual behavior of women

paraplegia – paralysis of the legs, the lower body [The sufferer is a paraplegic.]

parapraxis – a Freudian slip; a minor error, such as a slip of the tongue, thought to reveal a repressed motive

paraschite (or pararschiste) – person hired to cut a body, for mummification

paraselene – see parhelion

parasite (etymology) – from Greek for “one eating at another’s table”

paraverbal – being nonverbal communication

pardoner – one licensed to sell papal pardons (theoretically to raise funds for the church)

paresthesia – an abnormal sensation, as prickling, itching, etc.

Pareto Principle (eponym), or 80/20 rule – often, 80% of the result comes from 20% of the work or other input

parhelion – a bright spot in the sky, often in pairs on either side of the sun, thus forming a “triple sun”. Caused by atmospheric ice crystals. ( A parhelion is also called a sun-dog. The same phenomenon with the moon is called a paraselene or moon dog.)

parishion – parishioner; a member of a parish. This word died out in the 16th century, but it is an answer to the quiz, “Name 3 words ending in – shion: cushion, fashion, and ____.” See also hushion, fushion.

Park Avenue – the world of those who are ultra-rich in both money and social standing

Parkinson’s Law – eponym: the principle, “Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.”

Parnassus – 1. the world of poetry or poets: a rhymester striving to enter Parnassus 2. a center of poetry or artistic activity 3. a collection of poems

parody – a literary composition imitating (and esp. one satirizing) another work. Also, by extension: a poor or feeble imitation; a travesty

paronomasia – punning. more specifically, the form of pun based on using two different words of same or similar sound. (contrast antanaclasis, syllepsis, zeugma)

parricide – the killing of [or the killer of] one’s own parent – usually the father – or other near relative

parsimonious – excessively sparing or frugal

parthenian – virginal

parthenogenesis – the ability of unfertilized eggs to develop into embryos without sperm. Very common in snails and water fleas, but not in higher vertebrates.

parturient – in labor; about to give birth (parturition – the action of giving birth; childbirth)

paruresis – “bashful kidney”

pashmina – mountain goats in the Himalayas; also, the fine wool from them, used for pashmina scarves and shawls

pasquinade – eponym: a satire or lampoon, esp. one ridiculing a specific person. verb: to ridicule with a pasquinade

passacaglia – an old Italian or Spanish dance tune in ¾ measure, like a chaconne but slower

passe-partout – a master key. by extension: something that allows one to pass or go at will

passerine – (of birds) with feet adapted to perching (technically, of a particular order of perching birds)

pasteurize – [eponym] to partially sterilize (esp. milk or other liquid) by heat to destroy germs without a major chemical change in the substance

pastille – a troche; that is, a medicated lozenge used to soothe the throat

pastinaceous – having to do with parsnips

patella – the bone on the knee [from Latin for “pan,” its shape]

patent troll – a company that purchases a patent simply to sue another, claiming infringement

pathoctonus – the ebbing of passion; self-restraint (The Word Lover’s Dictionary)

patois – a regional dialect, especially without a literary tradition

patronymic – adj. and noun: of a name derived from one’s father or paternal ancestor

pavilion – (originally, a butterfly) a large and ornate tent. But more commonly applied structures of greater permanence, as a light roofed structure ( picnic pavilion), a solid but temporary structure ( a pavilion at the World’s Fair), a sports/entertainment arena, or a building within a complex (as a hospital).

Yoked to music at Picnic 🙂

Yoked to music play

pavlovian – eponym: being or expressing a conditioned or predictable reaction; automatic

pavonine – with the iridescence of a peacock’s tail. (also, “peacock-like”, in the manner of such words as canine, feline, etc.)

pawl [pronounced like pall] – a hinged bar whose free end engages the teeth of a ratchet wheel, allowing it to turn in one direction only

pawn – a person without real power, used (manipulated) by others for their own purposes [term evolved from the game of chess]

paxwax – the neck tendon (properly, the nuchal ligament)

peccadillo – a small sin or fault

pecksniffian – eponym: hypocritically benevolent; sanctimonious.

peculation – embezzlement

pecunious – abounding in money; wealthy; rich

pedant – a person who overrates, or over-displays, book-learning or technical knowledge

pedantic – exaggeratedly, unseasonably, or absurdly learned

pedigree – literally “foot of a crane”. On a genealogical chart, the group of lines branching from a person to his or her descendants looks rather like the footprint of a crane.

peeping Tom – eponym: a voyeur

pelagic – relating to open ocean or sea

pellucid – transparently clear, either literally (as with glass) or figuratively (as with prose writing)

pelota – 1. the game of jai alai 2. the ball used

peloton – competitive cycling: a densely packed group of riders, sheltering in each others’ draft. In a mass-start race, most riders ride in one large

peloton for most of the race.

pendulous – hanging down; drooping

penetrance – the likelihood that a gene will lead to a trait or disease. (That is, the frequency with which a genotype will manifest itself in a phenotype.)

pensile – hanging loosely; suspended: pendulous; the pensile nest of the Baltimore oriole

pentimento – a visible trace of the artist’s earlier version, showing through when the upper layers of the paint have become translucent with age. ( In effect, the “painting behind the painting”, showing where the artist “changed his mind” and changed his work.)

penultimate – next-to-last

penumbra – 1. a partial shadow (blocked from some but not all light sources and their parts) between regions of complete shadow and complete illumination
2. figurative extension:
a. an adjoining region in which something shades off into lessened intensely [the penumbra of the downtown]
b. something that partially covers, surrounds, or obscures

peony shell – fireworks: a spherical burst firework, in which the stars do not leave a trail

perambulate – to walk or travel from place to place

percipient – adj.: 1. perceiving 2. having perception; discerning; discriminating (noun: one who receives a telepathic impulse or message)

perdurable – extremely durable and long-lasting; also, permanent; everlasting

perdure – to continue, endure; to persist; to last forever

peregrinate – to travel, esp. on foot. peregrination – travel, esp. by foot; a wandering

perfecta – a bet where the bettor must name the top two finishers, in order (also called exacta)

pergola – a frame structure with a latticework roof, to support climbing plants

periclitate – to endanger

periscian – an inhabitant of either of the polar regions

peristerophily – love of, or collecting of, pigeons [not in OED; in Mrs. Bryne and some other private dictionaries]

peroration – the concluding part of an oration; especially, a final summing up of an argument. perorate – to so conclude a speech; also, to speak at great

length, esp. in a grandiloquent manner

perse – dark grayish blue

perseity – medieval philosophy: the quality of having substance independently of any real object

persiflage – friendly banter or frivolous conversation (persifleur – one who indulges in persiflage; a banterer) [From French, but there it means to mock, to ridicule. The root is siffler, to hiss, akin to sibilant.]

perspicacious – having penetrating mental discernment, keen understanding (contrast perspicuous)

perspicuous – clearly expressed; easy to understand (contrast perspicacious)

peruse – to read thoroughly [but often misused to mean “to glance over; to skim”]

petcock – a small valve on the bottom (e.g., of an automobile radiator), to drain or relieve pressure

peter pan – eponym: an adult who hangs on to adolescent interests and attitudes

Peter Pan collar – eponym: a small, flat collar with rounded ends meeting in front

Peter Principle – eponym; coinage: the principle that those in a hierarchy are promoted until they reach the level at which they are no longer competent (at which point promotion ceases). Thus each position is eventually filled by an incompetent.

peterman – a safebreaker

petitio principii – the logical fallacy of assuming in the premises what one wishes to prove in the conclusion

petrel – a type of seabird

petticoat government – rule by, or undue predominance or influence of women in domestic, political, or public life

pettifoggery – quibbling; argument over petty points

phaeton – eponym: a touring car

phalacrosis – typical male pattern baldness

phantasmagoria – a fantastic sequence of haphazardly associative imagery, as in a dreams; a bizarre or fantastic combination, collection, or assemblage

pharisee – a self-righteous or sanctimonious person

phat – excellent; first-rate: phat fashion; a phat rapper. (  it is well understood to have arisen as an acronym for Pretty Hot and Tempting [or “Tasty”.)

phatic – relating to speech used to share feelings or to establish a sociable mood, rather than to communicate information or ideas. “How are you? Lovely day, isn’t it?”

Information overload

Phenotype – an organism’s observable physical characteristics, as determined by both genes and environment influences. (contrast genotype)

Philander – eponym: to carry on a love affair, without serious intentions (said of a male)

Philippic (also here) – eponym: a bitter, violent speech of denunciation, scathing and insulting

Philistine – a person hostile or indifferent to culture and the arts

Phillumenist – a collector of matchbox or matchbook labels

Philodox – a person fond of opinions, esp. his or her own. To comment unnecessarily

contrast point of view


philography – the collecting of autographs, esp. those of famous persons

philology – the study of the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages

Philomel – eponym: a nightingale (But at least one good source says that in Ovid, Philomena became the swallow.)

philosophaster – a pretender to philosophy

philtre; philter – a love potion (some sources also say verb: to enchant with or as if with a philtre.)

philtrum – the vertical groove from the base of the nose to the upper lip

phlegm – 1. sluggishness of temperament 2. calm self-possession; equanimity (more common is the medical sense: thick, sticky, stringy respiratory mucus, as during a cold)

phlegmatic – calm and sluggish, showing little emotion

Phocaenine Woman – A naughty disturbs and bites like a Porpoise Python

Phocaenine Woman disturbs and bites like a Python Pythonine


Phocine – like a seal

Phonotactics – the area of phonology (study of a language’s sound system) concerned with analyzing the permitted sound sequences of a language

Phreatic – of or relating to groundwater

Phronesis – wisdom in determining ends and the means of attaining them

phryne – a spectacular legal stunt

phthisis – a progressively wasting or consumptive condition; esp. pulmonary tuberculosis

physic; physick – a medicine or drug, especially a cathartic (for constipation) (also, the art of medicine)

pia mater – see dura mater

piacular – making expiation or atonement (also, rarely: calling for expiation; sinful, wicked, culpable)

pianoforte (oxymoron) – a piano

pica – 1. abnormal craving to eat chalk, ash, dirt, etc.. 2. a printer’s measure, equaling 1/6 in.

picayune – of little value; paltry (noun: a trifle)

pickthank – a sycophant; a yes-man (one who would steal your gratitude and pick a thank)

Pickwickian – eponym: (of a word) intended or taken “in a sense other than the obvious or literal one” (M-W) or “in an idiosyncratic or unusual way: a word used in a Pickwickian manner.” (AHD) But it seems more exact to define it as “used to mean the opposite of what it would literally seem”.

pictograph – 1. a picture representing a word or idea; a hieroglyph 2. a pictorial representation of numerical data, esp. a graph having each value represented by a proportional number of pictures

pie (etymology) – see Archives

pie wagon – a police van; a van used to transport prisoners to jail

piebald – with patches of black and white (or less frequently, other colors)

pied – patterned with separate colors (orig., black and white) in distinct patches

piedmont – land lying or formed at the base of mountains (also adj. Etymologically, it means mountain-foot.]

Piepowder a traveling salesman or trader 2


Piepowder – a traveling salesman or trader

Piepowder a traveling salesman or trader 1


pifflecated – drunk; intoxicated

pike – a certain large freshwater fish [probably referring to its long, pointed jaw] Also pike² – a kind of spear

pilaster – an ornamental column, rectangular, attached to a wall, and projecting from the wall

pilcrow – the ¶ sign

pillion – a seat for a passenger on a motorcycle; a similar second seat on a horse

pillock – British: a stupid person; a fool, an idiot [orig. Scottish for “penis”]

pince-nez – eyeglasses without earpieces, that clip to the nose by a spring [literally, “pinch-nose” in French]

pinchbeck – eponym: an alloy used imitate gold in jewelry; also, (noun & adj.) cheap imitation

pinguescence – the process of growing fat (see fussock)

pink collar – relating to a class of jobs once traditionally filled by women

pintle – the vertical pin in a door hinge; a pin or bolt on which another part pivots (diminutive of pin)

pinyin – the system for representing Chinese words in our alphabet

pipit – a small songbird resembling the lark

piquant – (accent on first syllable)
1. of pleasantly sharp (esp. spicy) taste (“crisp, piquant flavor and fragrance” – Weight Watchers New Complete Cookbook)
2. pleasantly stimulating or exciting; engagingly provocative; also : having a lively arch charm

pique – a feeling of wounded pride (verb: 1. to cause resentment 2. to provoke; arouse: to pique one’s curiosity

Piscine – like a fish

Piscine woman – Smelling like fish

Piscine smelling woman

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Piscine is at


Pismire – an ant

Piss – Australian slang: alcoholic beverage

pissant – insignificant, worthless, petty; contemptible (noun: a person of that sort)

pissed – (in the UK and Aus.:) drunk; (in the US:) angry

pistil – the female (seed-bearing) part of a flower

pituitary – 1. of or secreting phlegm or mucus 2. relating to the pituitary gland – a small gland, at the base of the brain, the secretions of which control the other endocrine glands

pixelated – divided into pixels, such as computer graphics

pixilated – insane, whimsical; bewildered, confused (typically used in negative sense of coyly, often insufferably, “kooky”); also, intoxicated, tipsy.

plage – the beach of a seaside resort

plangent – 1. loudly beating or reverberating: the plangent wave; 2. lamenting, plaintive.

platonic – eponym: of a relationship marked by the absence of romance or sex; purely spiritual or ideal

playa – a temporary lake after rain; the desert basin, barren and salty, where that lake forms

plebeian – one of the common people or lower classes; also, a coarse, crude, or vulgar person. (adj: of or pertaining to the common people; also, vulgar;

common; crude or coarse)

plenipotentiary – adj: invested with full power and authority. noun: a diplomat having such power

pleonasm – redundancy in language (“I saw it with my own eyes”). often used to refer to a redundant name, as “PIN Number”, where the N in “PIN” means


plethora – an over-abundance: not problematic, but more than required. (Some dictionaries give as a secondary meaning an abundance, not necessarily over- abundance.) Our users add that ‘plethora’ applies only to countable things

plexure – a plaiting or interweaving

pliant – (noun: pliancy) easily influenced or swayed; pliable

plimsoll line – eponym: a line on the side of a ship; it is overloaded and unsafe the Plimsoll line sinks below the waterline

plinth (also here) – a heavy architectural base, as for supporting a statue or vase [cognate with flint]

plog – a web-based tool used by colleagues to keep tabs on group projects

plonk – Brit/Aus slang: cheap, inferior wine

plunger – the buttons upon which a telephone headset rests when it is hung up; more generally, a machine part that operates with a thrusting or plunging movement

pluton – a body of igneous rock formed beneath the surface of the earth by consolidation of magma

pluvial – relating to rain; or, having abundant rain

pochemuchka (Russian) – the inquisitive child who nags with constant questions

pococurante – eponym: nonchalant; indifferent

podcasts – radio shows and other audio programs posted on the Internet, available for download

podomancy – divination by the feet [dictionary at mancy lists 54 form of divination]

podsnap – an insularly complacent, self-satisfied person who refuses to face unpleasant facts

poetaster – a poet who writes insignificant, tawdry or shoddy poetry; an inferior rhymer; a rhymester

Pogglethrope – one gleefully taking joy in self-satisfaction, like a clucking strutting hen. [Not in dictionary; a wonderful coinage, reported 1871, which unfortunately did not catch on.]

pogonotrophy – the care and feeding of beards [ Also pogonic – relating to beards; pogonologist – a writer on beards; pogonology – a treatise on beards;

pogonotomy – the cutting of the beard; shaving]

poison pill (corporate takeovers) – an corporation’s arrangement that an attempted takeover of it will trigger certain events – the events being ones that make the takeover less attractive

polemology – the study of war, esp. as an academic discipline

political football – from US football: a problem or issue that is discussed among groups or persons without being settled.  often with the sense that groups are keeping the issue unresolved to be used for political benefit.

politicaster – a petty politician; a pretender or dabbler in politics

Pollyanna – eponym: a person of irrepressible optimism, finding good in everything

polyandry – multiple husbands

polygamy – multiple spouses

polyglot – 1. a book with the same text in different languages (esp. the Bible) 2. someone who can speak multiple languages 3. a confusion of languages. adj. – speaking or writing, or written in, several languages

polygyny – multiple wives

polyhistor – a person with broad knowledge (contrast polymath)

polymastia – the condition of having more than the usual (two) breasts

polymath – a person of great or varied learning (contrast polyhistor)

polysemy – use of the same word is listed as having several senses: cut the grass, cut the cake, cut the budget, cut classes

polysyndeton – use of repeated conjunctions for rhetorical effect: “here and there and everywhere”.(contrast asyndeton)

pommel – the front part of a saddle; the saddle horn

pommie – Australian & New Zealand slang; derogatory: a Brit, esp. a recent immigrant

pompadour – eponym: a woman’s or man’s hairstyle (like Elvis’) with the hair swept up over the forehead

pontificate – to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way

pontil – an iron rod used by glass makers for manipulating the hot glass. (also called puntil, puntel, punty, pontee or ponty). See also punt

Ponzi scheme – eponym: a kind of financial fraud, akin to a pyramid scheme

poof – British; offensive: a male homosexual

pooh-bah – eponym: a pompous ostentatious official, esp. one who, holding many offices, fulfills none of them

pooter – eponym: a suction bottle for collecting insects

popinjay – a vain, talkative person

popliteal – pertaining to the hollow area at the back of the knee

poppling – the sound of rain falling on water (also, tossing, bubbling, or rippling motion, as water tumbling over rocks)

poppycock – senseless talk; nonsense [In the view of some, the root meaning is “baby poop”.]

porcelain (etymology) – a white vitrified translucent ceramic

porcine – like a pig

porknell – resembling a pig (see fussock)

porter – a beer style popular in London around the 1880s but revived in the 1990s. Dark, like a stout but not so heavy.

Portia – a female advocate or barrister.

Portly – Euphemisms for ‘fat’. “Women are portly and men are stout”

38 Portly woman skmclasses Bangalore

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Portly is at


portmanteau (plural portmanteaux)– a large leather suitcase that opens into two hinged compartments

portmanteau word – a word formed by merging the sounds and meanings of two different words, as chortle, from chuckle and snort

portolan – pertaining to maritime navigation of ports and coasts

POSSLQ or Posslq – Person of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters

post hoc – the logical fallacy of concluding that if one thing happens after another, the first must is the cause of the second.

postilion – one who, in lieu of a coachman, guides a coach by riding the leading nearside horse of a team or pair

postpose – to place (a word or phrase) after, in a sentence

postprandial – after a meal; particularly after dinner

postvention – [found in use, but not in dictionaries] debriefing or intervention after a crisis

potamophobia – fear of rivers

Potemkin village – something that appears elaborate and impressive but in actual fact lacks substance

potpourri – 1. a combination of incongruous things 2. a miscellaneous anthology or collection (as of stories or music) 3. mixed of dried flower petals and

spices used to scent the air

pottage – a soup or stew (potage (one “t”) – a thick soup)

potted – Brit; informal: summarized or abridged

potter’s field – a burial ground for burying paupers and unclaimed bodies; also figurative

pouf – a low stuffed or padded seat or cushion

powfag – dial: to work to the point of exhaustion

prænomen – see cognomen

Praetorian – venal; corrupt

Praetorian venal corrupt woman


praseodymium – a rare silvery-white metallic element, of the lanthanide (rare-earth) series

prate – to talk idly and at length (typically about trivial matters); to chatter

precious – affectedly dainty or over-refined

precocious – showing unusually early mental development (not necessarily complimentary)

preposterous – utterly absurd or ridiculous [The term is an oxymoron: Latin prae “before” + posterus “after”]

prescient – having foresight, anticipating the significance of events

prestidigitation – 1. a. slight of hand; legerdemain b. performing magic tricks for an audience; skill therein [‘prestidigitator’] 2. deceitful cleverness;

“juggling with words”. [at root, “fast fingers”]

prestigiator – a juggler or a prestidigitator

prestigious – etymology: derogatory until the 19th century, meaning “practicing illusion or magic; deception”. Applied to Napoleon in 1815 in the sense of “dazzling influence.”

Illusion explained

preterite – noun: the simple past tense. adj.: expressing past action

prevaricate – to avoid giving a direct answer to a question (note: unlike to lie, it has a sense of evasion and of stalling, delaying)

priapic – eponym: 1. phallic 2. overly concerned with masculinity [priapism – persistent, usually painful penile erection, esp. from disease rather than


pricket – 1. a small spike to hold a candle upright; a candlestick with that spike 2. a buck in its second year, before the antlers branch

priest’s hole – a secret chamber or hiding-place for a (Roman Catholic) priest (in times of the penal laws)

primogeniture – the system of inheritance in which all the belongings and title pass to the oldest son

primrose – a pale yellow color

primus inter pares – first among equals

princeps – chief, headman; also, first edition of book (usually in the phrase editio princeps)

prion – a microscopic protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid

priscian; priscianist – eponym: a grammarian [from Priscianus, a celebrated Roman grammarian, c500-530]

prisoner of war – a captured member a country’s armed forces (or of an organized resistance movement, in certain circumstances) [precise meaning is much

misunderstood in dictionaries and the press]

procrustean – eponym: acting with mindless and harmful disregard of natural variation or individuality; producing strict conformity by ruthless or

arbitrary means

procumbent – lying face down

profligate – recklessly wasteful; also, dissolute; ignoring the constraints of convention or morality

profligation – defeat; rout; overthrow

prognathous – having a lower jaw that projects forward

prognosticate – to foretell, prophesy

proletarian – of the commonalty, of the lowest class of people; hence, mean; vile; vulgar. (noun: a member of the working class). proletariat – the

laboring class; the poorest class of wage earners

prolix – (of speech or writing) tediously lengthy

promethean (usually capitalized) – so boldly creative as to have a life-giving quality; inspiring.

prone – lying on one’s stomach (contrast supine – lying on one’s back)

pronk – verb: to leap through the air, as an antelope does. noun: a weak or foolish person

prophylactic – acting to prevent something, esp. disease (noun: this is familiar)

propitiate – to appease; to gain or regain the favor of

proprioception – see kinesthesia. proprioceptive – regarding perception of stimuli within the body

prorupt – countries: mostly compact in shape but having a significant appendage

proscenium – an arch framing the opening between the stage and the auditorium; also called proscenium arch. (A secondary meaning of proscenium is “the part

of a stage in front of the curtain”.)

prosopography – a study that identifies and relates a group of persons or characters within a particular historical or literary context

Prospero – eponym: a person or thing like Prospero, esp. in being capable of magic or of influencing others’ behavior or perceptions without their


protean – eponym: readily assuming different shapes or roles

proxene – (Greek ‘fire-stranger’) a class of rocks thought to be formed without volcanic processes, without fire

prude (etymology) – originally a positive term in French, meaning “wise woman”, short for prude femme (modeled after preudomme, which employed homme= man

). But the French word shifted in mean to refer to “a woman too wise, too observant of decorum and propriety”, and it then came into English with that

shifted, negative meaning.

prurient – having or causing an excessive interest in sex

Prurient eliciting or possessing extraordinary interest in sex by woman

pruritis – itching, esp. without any mark on the skin

psalter – a collection of Psalms for liturgical or devotional use

psalterium – one of four parts of a cow’s stomach; see abomasum

psaphonic – related to outrageous self-promotion [But a caution: not in OED; meaning subject to dispute]

psephology – the study of political elections

psithurism – the sound of the wind rustling the leaves

psyche – eponym: soul; self; mind

psychomancy – divination by the soul, affections, or dispositions of men [dictionary at mancy lists 54 form of divination]

psychometric – the measurement of mental traits, abilities, and processes

psyops – military: psychological operations; that is, operations to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of

the target

ptochocracy – government by the poor

ptosis – a drooping or limp, half-closed upper eyelid

publican – the keeper of a pub

publication bias – the tendency of scientific journals to report findings of correlation but bury examples of absence of correlation

puffery – hype; exaggerated praise, especially for promotion

puffin crossing – a pedestrian crossing with traffic lights partly controlled by sensors which detect the presence of pedestrians

pugilist – a boxer

pugnacious – combative; quick to argue or quarrel

puissant – powerful; strong; mighty. (noun: ‘puissance’)

pulchritude – physical comeliness and appeal (esp. of women)

pule (also here) – to cry weakly or querulously; to whine, whimper,

pulking – a variety of skijoring: dogs pull a sled (pulk), which in turn pulls a skier

pullman – eponym: a railroad parlor car or sleeping car

pullulate – 1. to breed rapidly or abundantly. 2. to teem; swarm: a lagoon that pullulated with tropical fish

pultrusion – (from pull + extrusion) a manufacturing process that produces constant cross-section composite materials

puna – 1. a high bleak plateau in the Peruvian Andes 2. difficulty of breathing due to thin atmosphere; mountain sickness

punaise – a bed-bug

Punch – eponym (as in Punch and Judy)

Punch and Judy show – internal bickering that is low-spirited, vicious, destructive and endless

Punchinello – eponym: a squat grotesque person

punctilio (also here) – 1. a fine or over-fine point of etiquette 2. precise observance of formalities

pungent – sharply strong in smell or taste; also, of remarks: cutting and caustic

punt¹ – 1. the indentation in the bottom of a champagne or wine bottle (see pontil for synonyms) 2. an open flatbottom boat for shallow waters, usually

propelled by a long pole; to travel in a punt; propel a boat with a pole

punt² – from US football: to give up a task out of out of failure to make progress, as in punt on the issue of … (from US football) Interestingly, in

Australian slang the term means the opposite, “to attempt a difficult task.” I understand that the British meaning is ‘to bet’.

puppy-dog eyes – a person’s eyes (or general expression or appearance), likened to a puppy’s, in appearing mournful, beseeching, or winsome, or in seeking

to elicit sympathy or compassion

puppyism – extreme meanness, affectation, conceit, or impudence

purblind – 1. partially sighted. 2. lacking in discernment or understanding

puritanical – eponym: overscrupulous; rigid; marked by stern morality

purl stitch – one of the two basic stitches in knitting (the other being the knit stitch). For details, see archives.

purloin – to steal

purple prose – prose that is too ornate

purpure – purple

pursy – fat and short of breath (see fussock)

putative – commonly thought or deemed; supposed; reputed: the putative father of a child

putto (plural putti) – a representation of a naked child, especially a cherub or a cupid

pyromancy – divination by fire [dictionary at mancy lists 54 form of divination]

pyroxferroite; pyroxferoite – a mineral of the proxene (‘stranger’) class, not of earth, found on the moon

pyrrhic victory – eponym: a victory won at an excessive costs that outweigh the benefits

pyrrhonism – eponym: extreme skepticism; universal doubt

pyx – the container in which the wafer of the Eucharist is kept (also: a chest in a mint in which specimen coins are placed to await assay)

pabouche a slipper
pabulous of, like or pertaining to nourishment
pabulum food; provender; nourishment
pacable able to be appeased; willing to forgive
pace contrary to the opinion of; in respectful disagreement with
pachydermia elephantiasis
pachyglossal thick-tongued
pachymeter instrument for measuring small thicknesses
pachynsis thickening
paciferous peace-bringing
pacificate to give peace to
pactolian like or having golden-hued sands
padella shallow dish of fat with a wick used in illuminations
padrone innkeeper; employer
padronism system of obtaining labour through employment agents
paduasoy corded silk
paean song of thanksgiving
paedarchy government by children
paedobaptism doctrine of infant baptism
paedocracy government by children; paedarchy
paedogenesis reproduction by an infant or larval organism
paedology study of children
paedonymic name taken from one’s child
paedophage eater of children
paedophilia abnormal love or sexual attraction for children
paedophobia fear of children; fear of dolls
paedotrophy art of rearing children
paginal of, like or pertaining to pages or pagination
pagophagia eating trays of ice to help offset iron deficiency
paideutic educational method or theory
paidonosology study of children’s diseases; pediatrics
paillette a spangle
pais people from whom a jury is drawn
paisley soft wool fabric with ornamental pattern
paizogony necking; love-play
palabra a word; talk
palaceous spade-shaped
palaeoanthropology study of early humans
palaeobiology study of fossil plants and animals
palaeoclimatology study of ancient climates
palaeogaea the Old World as a biological region
palaeogeography study of ancient geography
palaeography study of ancient writing or inscriptions
palaeolimnology study of ancient fish or lakes
palaeopedology study of early soils
palaeophile antiquarian
palaeosophy ancient learning or thought
palaeotypography early typography
palaestra wrestling school; gymnasium
palaetiology application of principles of causation to past events
palafitte prehistoric lake dwelling
palamate having webbed feet
palanquin light litter for one passenger
palatine having royal authority over a region
palative pleasing to the taste or to the palate
palatography recording position of tongue against hard palate during speech
palaver to talk profusely or idly
paleaceous chaffy; like or resembling chaff
paleobotany study of ancient plants
paleo-osteology study of ancient bones
paletot loose overcoat
palette small plate covering the armpit joint in a suit of armour
palewise (of heraldic charges) oriented vertically
palfrenier groom
palfrey riding horse, especially one for a lady
palification the act of strengthening with stakes
paliform shaped like a stake
palilalia disorder characterized by rapid repetition of words
palillogy repetition of a word or word or phrase
palimbacchius metrical foot of two long and one short syllable
palimpsest manuscript or paper that is erased and then written over
palingenesis new birth; reincarnation; second creation
palingman seller of fish or eels
palinode poem in which earlier thoughts or feelings are retracted
palinola compulsive repetition of an act until it is perfect
palinspastic showing geological formations of an area as they existed in the past
palisade fence of stakes used for defensive purposes
pall covering cloth laid upon Communion chalice
palladian of, like or pertaining to wisdom or learning
pallasethesia sense of vibration
pallescent turning pale
palliament white robe or gown
palliasse straw mattress
palliate to ease with out curing; to extenuate
pallid pale; wan
pallium white woollen band symbolising archbishop’s authority
pallograph instrument measuring ship’s vibration
palmar of, like or pertaining to the palm
palmarian pre-eminent
palmary principal; meritorious
palmate hand-shaped
palmiped web-footed
palpebral of, like or pertaining to the eyelid
palpebration winking
palter to trifle in talk; to use trickery; to equivocate
paltock short coat or doublet worn under armour
paltripolitan term of scorn applied to city-dwellers or urban life
paludal of, like or pertaining to marshes; marshy; malarial
paludicolous growing in marshes; marsh-dwelling
paludism marsh fever; malaria
paludose marshy; living in marshes
palynology study of pollen
palzogony love-play; foreplay
pam card game in which jack of club has highest value
pamphysicism doctrine that material nature is the source of all things
pampiniform like a tendril
panaceist believer in panaceas
panaesthesia totality of perception; general awareness
panaesthetism theory that consciousness may inhere generally in matter
panarchy universal rule or dominion
panary of, like or pertaining to bread; bread store
panatella long; thin cigar
panchion coarse earthenware pan
panchreston panacea
pancosmism theory that the material universe is all that exists
pancratic excelling all round in athletics or accomplishments
pancyclopaedic encyclopaedic
pandation warping
pandect treatise covering the whole of a subject
pandemian vulgar; sensual
pandemic universal; affecting majority of people in a region
pandemonism worship of spirits dwelling in all forms of nature
pandiculation the act of stretching and yawning
pandora musical instrument like a lute
panduriform fiddle-shaped
panegoism solipsism

panegyricon collection of sermons for Orthodox church festivals
panegyry grand assembly; religious festival
paneity the state of being bread
panentheism belief that world is part but not all of God’s being
pangamy random or unrestricted mating
pangeometry extension of geometry to more than three dimensions
Panglossian overly optimistic
pangolin scaly insectivorous mammal with elongated snout
pangram sentence containing all the letters of the alphabet
panharmonicon mechanical musical instrument operated by a cylinder
panhygrous moist in all parts
panification conversion into bread
panivorous bread-eating
panjandrum imaginary potentate of great power and self-importance
panlogism belief that only that which is rational is truly real
panmixia cessation of the influence of natural selection
panmnesia belief that all mental impressions are stored in memory
pannage food picked up by swine in woods; right to pasture swine
panne heavy lustrous silk or rayon with waxy feel
pannicle thin sheet-like vestment
pannier provision-basket; basket carried over one’s back
pannikin small metal cup
pannose like felt
pannychis all-night vigil in preparation for Orthodox church feast
panomphaean all-oracular
panophobia melancholia marked by groundless fears
panoply complete suit of armour
panoptic all-embracing; viewing all aspects
panopticon prison where all inmates can be watched from one point
panpharmacon universal remedy
panplain flat area consisting of several joined floodplains
panpsychism theory that all nature has a psychic side
panpygoptosis shortness of the legs
pansexualism theory that all thought derived from sexual instinct
pansophy universal knowledge
panspermatism belief in origin of life from extraterrestrial germs
pantagamy universal bachelorhood; free love
pantagruelian marked by extravagant and coarse satire
pantaleon large dulcimer
pantarchy government by all the people; world government
pantechnicon receptacle holding many miscellaneous objects
pantheism belief that the universe is God; belief in many gods
pantisocracy government by all equally
pantler officer in a household in charge of bread
pantochronometer combined sundial and compass
pantoglot speaker of all languages
pantograph apparatus connecting streetcar to overhead wires
pantograph instrument for copying drawing to a different scale
pantography complete or general description of something
pantology system of universal knowledge
pantomnesia remembrance of everything ever learned
pantomorphic taking on all shapes
pantophagy omnivorousness
pantophobia fear of everything
pantopragmatic meddling in everybody’s business
pantoscope panoramic camera
pantosophy universal knowledge; pansophy
panurgic good at all kinds of tasks
panzoism belief that humans and animals share vital life energy
paparchy government by the pope
papaverous of, like or pertaining to poppies
papeterie packaged fancy stationery; stationery-case
papilionaceous of, like or pertaining to butterflies
papilla nipple-like projection
papilliferous bearing papillae
papilliform nipple-shaped
papillose having nipples or papillae
pappus downy beginnings of a beard
papren stone passing through a wall from face to face
papulation the development of papillae or pimples
papule pimple
papuliferous pimply; bearing or pertaining to pimples
papyraceous like paper; papery
papyrocracy government by newspapers or literature
papyrography process of transferring a drawing on paper to a zinc plate
papyrology study of paper
papyrotamia manufacture of paper flowers
parabasis speech where the chorus advances and addresses audience
parabiosis physical union of two embryos or organisms
parablepsis false vision; oversight
parabola rhetorical use of simile or metaphor
parabolanus layman who tends the sick
parabolaster a parabola of a higher degree
paraboliform shaped like a parabola
parabolist teller of parables
paracentral situated near the centre
parachronism representation of something as being newer than it is
paraclete advocate or intercessor; the Holy Spirit acting in such a role
paracme decline; period following the zenith or acme
paracoita female sexual partner
paracoitus male sexual partner
paracrostic poem whose initial letters reproduce its first verse
paracusis disordered hearing
paradiastole description of an unfavourable quality through a favourable synonym
paradigma rhetorical comparison by resemblance to another thing
paradisiacal suggestive of a place or state of perfect bliss
parados earthworks defending against a rear attack
paradoxography description of phenomena considered fantastic or wondrous
paradoxology holding or maintaining paradoxes
paradromic adjacent; side by side
paraenesis rhetorical expression of advice or warning
paraesthesia tingling sensation on the skin
parage high birth or rank; equality of birth or status
paragenesis formation of minerals as a joined mass
paragnosia misunderstanding
paragnosis skill in matters immune to scientific investigation
paragoge addition of a sound to end of word
paragram play on words in which letters are changed
paragraphia writing of different letters and words than intended
paragraphy writing of paragraphs
parakinesis production of movement of objects by a spiritualist
paralalia abnormality of speech sounds
paralipomenon thing left out; added in supplement
paralipsis fixing attention on subject by pretending to neglect it
parallax seeming change of object position due to observer moving
parallelepiped solid figure with each face a parallelogram
parallelism belief that matter and mind don’t interact but relate
paralogise to reason falsely
paralogism false reasoning
paramatta worsted and cotton blend
paramedian near the middle line
parament rich decoration, hanging or robe
paramnesia abnormality of memory; inability to remember meaning of word
paranatellon a star that rises at the same time as another star
paranomasia rhetorical art of punning
paranym euphemism; word whose meaning altered to conceal evasion
paranymph one who solicits for another; best man or bridesmaid
paraph flourish under one’s signature
paraphasia disorder in which one word substituted for another

paraphonia alteration of the voice; as at puberty
paraphrast one who paraphrases
paraphraxis inability to perform purposive movements properly
parapraxis blunder; error; mistake
parapsychology study of unexplained mental phenomena
pararthria incoherence
paraselene mock moon; bright patch on a lunar halo
parasigmatism inability to pronounce the sound ‘s’
parasitaster a mean or sorry parasite
parasiticide killing of parasites
parastatal indirectly controlled by the state
parastatic of, like or pertaining to protective mimicry of animals
parasuicide harmful act appearing to be an attempt at suicide
parasynesis corruption of forms of words
parasynthesis derivation of words using hyphenated compounds
parataxis organization of clauses without connectives
parathesis apposition; compounding of words without change
paratonic arresting growth
paravail inferior; lowest; of least account
paravane device used to cut underwater cables
paravant in front; first; beforehand
paravent wind screen
parbreak to vomit
parbuckle sling made by wrapping both ends of rope around object
parcel partly
parcenary co-heirship
parciloquy laconic speech
parclose railing in church enclosing altar, chapel or tomb
pardie mild oath; certainly or truly
pardine of, like or pertaining to leopards
pardoner one who raises money for religious works by selling indulgences
parecbasis rhetorical digression or deviation from expected topic
paregmenon repetition of a word or its cognates in a series of words
paregoric soothing; lessening pain
parembole insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase
paremptosis insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase
parentalia feasts or rites in memory of deceased parents
parentelic related by blood
parenticide killing or killer of one’s parents
parergon work undertaken in addition to one’s employment
pareschatology doctrine dealing with matters after death but before the end of the world
paresis omission of an element from a word
pareunia coitus
parfay by my faith; verily
parfleche dried buffalo skin
parget to plaster over; to cover with ornamental plasterwork
parhelion halo-like light seen in sky opposite the sun
pari passu side by side; equally
paribuntal fine straw used to make hats
parietal of a wall or walls, especially anatomical walls
parietals school rules regarding inter-gender contact
parine of, like or pertaining to titmouses
parison lump of glass before it is moulded into its final shape
parison even balance of elements in a sentence
paristhimion tonsil
parisyllabic having the same number of syllables in all forms
parity condition or fact of having born children
parlous full of danger or risk
Parnassian poetic
parnel mistress or concubine of a priest; harlot
parochial local; confined to one region
parodinia difficult childbirth
paroemia proverb or adage used in argumentation
paroemiographer writer of proverbs
paroemiography writing of proverbs; a treatise of proverbs
paroemiology study of proverbs
paromoeon alliteration
paromoion starting statement with several words starting with the same letter
paromologia partial admission of opponent’s argument to strengthen one’s final position
paromology concession of opponent’s point to strengthen one’s own point
paronomasia play on words; punning
paronym word from same root or having same sound as another
parorexia desire to eat strange foods
parotic near or adjacent to the ear
parous bearing or having borne offspring
parousia second coming of Christ
parousiamania obsession with the second coming of Christ
paroxysm fit of passion; laughter; coughing; sudden violent action
paroxytone having an acute accent on the next to last syllable
parquet floor-covering of fitted wooden blocks
parr young salmon
parrel band by which a yard is fastened to a mast
parrhesia asking forgiveness in advance for frank or bold speech
parricide killing of parent or close relative
parse to describe a word fully in terms of classification
parsonarchy government by parsons
parterre pit of a theatre
parthenian of, like or pertaining to virgins
parthenogenesis reproduction by a virgin or by means of an unfertilized egg
parthenolatry worship of the Virgin Mary
parthenology study of virgins
parthophobia fear of virgins
partible that may be divided up or parted
particularism belief that only a few are chosen for salvation
partim in part
partitive indicating a part of a larger whole
partocracy government by a single unopposed political party
parturition the act of giving birth
parure a set of ornaments or jewels
parvanimity smallness of mind
parvenu one suddenly risen to wealth without great social rank
parvipotent having little power
parvis enclosed space at the front of a church
parviscient having little knowledge
pascual growing on land used for grazing; of, like or pertaining to pastures
paseo leisurely stroll; march of bullfighters into arena
pasguard armour for left arm and elbow to protect from lance strike while jousting
pashmina fine goat’s wool fabric used for making shawls
pasigraphy a system of universal ideographic writing
paso-doble quick Spanish one-step dance
pasquilant lampooner
pasquin to lampoon
pasquinade to lampoon; a lampoon
pasquinian satirical
passacaglia slow solemn Italian or Spanish dance
passade motion of horse to and fro over ground in dressage
passalorynchite one who takes a religious vow of silence
passant heraldic animal depicted walking
passement decorative trimming of beads or braid
passepied Breton dance resembling a quick minuet
passerine of, like or pertaining to sparrows
passible susceptible to or capable of suffering or of feeling
passim everywhere; dispersedly
passimeter instrument for issuing automatic tickets
passiuncle minor or lesser passion
passivate to coat metal with oxides to protect from corrosion
passulate to dry grapes
passus section of a poem or story
pastance pastime
pastern rope, strap or chain used to tie horse by its leg
pastiche medley, composed from different sources; imitative work
pastille small cone of charcoal burned as incense
pastose painted thickly
pastourelle medieval poem between knight and shepherdess
patagium wing-membrane of flying mammal
pataphysics the science of imaginary solutions
patation act of drinking
patavinity provincialism; dialectal term
patefaction disclosure; opening; manifestation
patelliform shaped like a saucer or kneecap
paten plate; metal disk used to hold Communion bread
pateriform saucer-shaped
pathic passive; a passive subject
pathogenesis causation or production of disease
pathognomic indicative of a specific disease
pathography life history used to trace a disease or disorder
pathomania moral insanity
pathophobia fear of disease
pathopoeia excitation of passion by rhetoric or poetry
patible capable of suffering or being acted on; passible
patibulary of, like or pertaining to the gallows
patibulate to execute by hanging
patina film or surface that forms on surface of metal or wood
patination formation of a film on copper from exposure
patrial of, like or pertaining to one’s native land
patrimony inheritance from father or ancestors
patriolatry excessive devotion or worship of one’s native country
patroclinous having inherited paternal characteristics
patrology study of early Christianity
patronym name derived from father’s name
patroon captain of a ship; coxswain of a longboat
patruity degree of relationship of paternal uncle
patte narrow band keeping a belt or sash in its place
patten wooden shoe; clog; base of a pillar
patulous spreading; wide-spreading; open
pauciloquent of few words; speaking little
pauldron shoulder-plate of suit of armour
paulopast just finished or past
paulopost just after
pavage charge for paving streets
pavane stately English Renaissance court dance
pavé setting of jewellery with stones close together
pavid timid
pavior one who lays down paving stones
pavis shield for the entire body
pavonated peacock-blue
pavonian of, like or pertaining to peacocks
pavonine of, like or pertaining to peacocks
pax tablet decorated with sacred figure and kissed by participants in mass
paxillose resembling a small stake
paynimry heathendom
paysage landscape
paysagist painter of landscapes
peatary region, bog or moor covered with peat
peau-de-soie soft, heavy closely-woven silk
peavey lumberman’s spiked and hooked lever
peccable liable to sin
peccadillo a slight offense or sin
peccaminous sinful
peccancy sinfulness; transgression
peccary tropical New World piglike mammal
peccavi admission of sin or guilt
peck unit of dry measure equal to 8 quarts
pecorous full of cows
pectinal of a comb; comb-like
pectination comb-like structure
pectineal of the pubic bone
pectiniform shaped like a comb
pectize to congeal; to cause to set
pectoral armour for the breast of a person or horse
pectoriloquy sound of patient’s voice as heard through stethoscope
pectuncle cockle
pecudiculture rearing of cattle
peculation embezzlement
peculium private property; especially when given by father to son
pecuniary of, like or pertaining to money; consisting of money
ped naturally formed mass or aggregate of soil
pedagogics study of teaching
pedagoguery schoolmastering; teaching
pedalian of, like or pertaining to the foot or to metrical feet
pedaneous going on foot; pedestrian; of lowly or petty standing
pedantocracy government by pedants or strict rule-bound scholars
pedary of, like or pertaining to walking or feet
pedate footed; having feet; like a foot
pederasty anal intercourse between a man and a boy
pedetentous proceeding slowly
pedicel stalk of an animal organ
pedicle bony protrusion of the skull from which an antler grows
pedicular of, like or pertaining to lice
pediculicide killing of lice
pediculophobia fear of lice
pediculous lousy
pediform shaped like a foot
pedigerous having or bearing feet
pediluvium foot bath
pedimanous having feet shaped like hands
pediment triangular structure crowning front of a Greek building
pedipulate to work or knead with the feet
pedography description of soil types
pedological of, like or pertaining to soils
pedology study of soils
pedomancy divination by examining the soles of the feet
pedometer instrument for measuring distance travelled on foot
peduncle stem or stalk of a flower
pegamoid artificial leather
pegomancy divination by springs or fountains
peignoir woman’s dressing-gown
peirameter instrument measuring resistance of road surfaces to wheel movement
peirastic experimental; tentative
peise weight; burden; load
pejorate to worsen; to depreciate
pejorism severe pessimism
pekin fine soft silk
pelage animal’s coat of hair or wool
pelagic oceanic; inhabiting or carried out in the deep sea
pelargic of, like or pertaining to storks
pelasgic nomadic
pelatast ancient Greek shield-bearing soldier
pelecoid shaped like a hatchet; a hatchet-shaped geometrical figure
pelerine woman’s fur cape
pelisse fur-lined or fur garment
pelitic composed of fine sediment
pellate to divide; to separate
pellicle thin skin or film
pellicule thin diaphanous fabric
pellucid completely clear; transparent
pelma sole of foot
pelmatogram footprint
pelmet fringe or valance for hiding a curtain rod
peloid mud or other semi-solid medium used in baths
pelology study of mud
pelotherapy treatment by mud baths
peltastiform shield-shaped
peltiferous bearing a shield
peltry skins of animals with the fur on them
pelurious furry; hairy
pelviform basin-shaped
pelvigraphy examination of the pelvis
pelvimeter instrument for measuring the pelvis
pembroke small four-legged table with hinged flaps
pemphigus skin condition characterized by watery boils on the body
penacute having an acute accent on the penultimate syllable; paroxytone
penanggalan female vampire of Malay mythology
penannular in the form of an almost complete ring
penates household gods of a Roman family
pencilliform paintbrush-shaped
pendeloque drop pendant
pendent hanging; drooping; dangling
pendicle pendant, dependency or appendage
pendular of, like or pertaining to a pendulum
penduline building a pendulous nest
pendulograph curve representing combination of musical sounds
penecontemporaneous of geological processes occurring immediately after deposition
penectomy surgical removal of the penis
penelopize to create work as an excuse to deter suitors
peneplain land worn down by denudation to almost be a plain
penes in the possession of
penetralia inmost parts of a building or temple; innermost secrets
penetrometer instrument for measuring firmness or consistency of substances
penial of, like or pertaining to the penis
penicillate having small tufts or bristles
pennaceous featherlike
pennate winged; feathered
penniferous bearing feathers
penniform feather-shaped
pennyweight unit of troy weight equal to 24 grains
penology study of crime and punishment
pensile hanging; suspended; overhanging
pensum task; school imposition
pentad set of five things
pentagamist person who has or has had five spouses
pentalogy state of being in five parts
pentamerous having five parts or members
pentapolis alliance of five cities
pentarchy government by five individuals
pentateuch the first five books of the Old Testament
pentheraphobia fear or hatred of one’s mother-in-law
pentimento revealing of part of a painting beneath a newer one
penury destitution; poverty
peotillomania abnormal compulsion for pulling on the penis
peotomy surgical removal of the penis
per through; according to; by means or agency of
peracute very sharp or violent; very acute
peradventure perhaps; possibly; by adventure; by chance
peragrate to travel over or through
percale closely woven lightweight cloth
percaline glossy lightweight cotton
perceptionalism belief that humans perceive things as they truly are
percheron dappled cart horse
percipient perceiving; observant; perceptive
percoct well-cooked; overdone
percurrent running through the whole length
percutaneous done or applied through the skin
percutient striking or having the power to strike; percussive
perdicine of, like or pertaining to partridges
perdricide killer of partridges
perduellion treason
perdure to endure over a period of time
peregal fully equal
peregrination journey, especially on foot or to a foreign country
peregrinity foreignness; outlandishness
perennate to live perennially; to survive from season to season
perequitate to ride through on horseback
perfectibilian believer in the perfectibility of mankind
perfectibilism doctrine that humans capable of becoming perfect
perfectionism doctrine that moral perfection constitutes the highest value
perfervid very fervid; ardent; eager
perficient effectual; actually achieving a result
perfuse to pour or diffuse through or over
pergameneous like or resembling parchment
pergola arched framework for climbing plants
periaster point in orbit of a body in which it is nearest to a specified star
peribolos precinct; enclosing wall of a precinct
pericentral surrounding a centre or central body
periclinal sloping downwards in all directions from a point
periclitate to endanger; to jeopardise
pericope an excerpt or passage read during religious services
periculous dangerous
periegesis description in the manner of a tour; journey through
periergia use of elevated style to discuss a trivial matter
periodontics study of gums
perioeci individuals living at same latitude on opposite sides of earth
periotic around the ear
peripatetic wandering about; itinerant
peripetia sudden change of fortune
periphrasis circumlocution; round-about expression
periplus a voyage or trip around something
peripteral having a row of columns on every side
periscian person living inside the polar circle
perispomenon having a circumflex accent on the final syllable
perissology verbiage; pleonasm
perissosyllabic having an additional syllable
perissotomist knife-happy surgeon
peristalith ancient stone circle
peristeronic of, like or pertaining to pigeons
peristerophily pigeon-collecting
peristrephic moving round; revolving; rotatory
peristyle range of columns around a building or courtyard
peritectic in the state between solid and liquid; melting
periwinkle a bluish or azure colour; a plant with bluish flowers

rudely merry pearls
pulling sun beckoning ears
soaring flaccid cruel

destines dazzle
brazenly, modest farmer
panics, fearsome quick

swordsmen redden, foul
dry cinder imposing vast
seamstress singing men

floating droplet scowls
eagerly, raggedly, calm
polluted dried cane

snoozing basket rusts
sadly, plowshare pulls grayly
stones clank loudly, warm

perlaceous pearly
perlative indicating movement through or across
perliginous producing pearls
perlocution effect produced when a particular word is uttered
perlustrate to traverse and inspect carefully
permeameter instrument for measuring permeability
pernicious destructive; ruinous; fatal
pernoctate to pass the night in vigil or prayer
pernor one who takes or receives
peroral through the mouth
perorate to speak grandiosely or grandiloquently
peroration lengthy part of speech; especially a conclusion
perpend to weigh in the mind; to consider carefully
perpilocutionist one who speaks through his hat
perron raised platform or terrace at an entrance door
perruquier wigmaker
perscrutation thorough search
perse dark blue or bluish-grey; cloth of such a colour
perseity independent existence
perseverate to repeat an action continually or habitually
persiennes outside shutters with movable slats
persiflage banter; flippancy; idle chatter
personalia personal details, possessions or stories
personalism doctrine that humans possess spiritual freedom
personalty personal belongings and property
perspectography theory of drawing according to rules of perspective
perspicacious clear-minded; astute; perceptive
perspicuous easily understood; clearly expressed
perstringe to constrain; to touch on; to censure
pertinacity quality of holding unyieldingly to a position
pertuse punched; pierced; slit
pertussis whooping cough
peruke a frilly wig
perulate scaly; having scaled skin
pervicacious very obstinate
pervigilium night vigil
pervious permeable; penetrable
pessary suppository inserted into the vagina
pessimal least favourable
pessimum point at which any condition is least favourable
pessomancy divination using pebbles
pestiferous bringing plague or pestilence
pestology science of pests
petaliferous bearing petals
petary peat-bog
petaurist flying phalanger
petcock valve for draining condensed steam from engine cylinders
petrary contrivance for hurling stones
petrean of, like or pertaining to or made of rock
petrel long-winged seabird with hooked bill
petrichor pleasant smell accompanying the first rain after a dry spell
petricolous living in or near rocks
petrissage massage by longitudinal rubbing and lateral squeezing
petrogenesis formation or development of rocks
petroleous containing or rich in petroleum
petroliferous bearing petroleum
petrology study of rocks
petrophilous living on or thriving in rocky areas
petrous stony
pettifogger a lawyer given to underhanded tactics
pettitoes pigs’ feet as food
petulcous butting like a ram
petuncle small scallop
pewfellow one who occupies the same pew as another
pexity roughness of the nap of cloth
peytral armour for a horse’s breast
phacochoerine of, like or pertaining to warthogs
phacoid lens-shaped
phacometer instrument for measuring lenses
phaeic dusky
phaeism duskiness
phaeton open four-wheeled carriage
phagomania excessive desire for food or eating
phagophobia fear of eating
phakic (of an eye) having a crystalline lens
phalacrosis baldness
phalanstery dwelling of a communal group or phalanx of individuals
phalarope migratory shorebird with lobed feet
phallephoric carrying the penis
phallic of, pertaining to or resembling a penis
phallocracy government by men
phallocrat one who assumes the naturality of male dominance
phaneromania habit of biting one’s nails
phanerosis act or process of becoming visible
phanic visible; obvious
phanopoeia visual imagery in poetry
phantasmatography scientific description of rainbows and other lumnious atmospheric phenomena
phaometer old instrument for measuring light intensity
pharisaic hypocritical
pharmacognosy study of drugs of animal and plant origin
pharmacology study of drugs
pharmacomania abnormal obsession with trying drugs
pharmacometer instrument for measuring drugs
pharmacopolist drug-seller; pharmacist; apothecary

pharology study of lighthouses

Robo at Lighthouse

pharos lighthouse or beacon
pharyngography description of the pharynx
pharyngology study of the throat
pharyngoscope instrument for inspecting the pharynx
phassachate lead-coloured agate
phatic using speech for social reasons or to communicate feelings
phellem cork
phelloid cork-like
phelloplastic a model in cork
phememe smallest possible linguistic unit
phemic of, like or pertaining to speech
phenakistoscope early cinematograph in which figures are viewed through a slit
phenetic of, like or pertaining to classification by phenotype
phengite bright and beautiful kind of alabaster
phengophobia fear of daylight
phenogenesis origin of racial groups
phenology study of organisms as affected by climate
phenomenalism belief that phenomena are the only realities
phenomenology study of phenomena
pheon the barbed head of a dart or arrow in heraldry
pheretrer keeper of a shrine
phialiform saucer-shaped
phialine resembling a phial
philalethist lover of truth
philately study of postage stamps
philematology the act or study of kissing
philematophobe one who dislikes kissing
philhippic loving or admiring horses
philippic speech or writing full of bitter condemnation
philistine materialistic in outlook; uncultured
phillumeny collecting of matchbox labels
philocaly love of beauty
philodemic fond of commoners or the lower classes
philodox one who loves his own opinions; dogmatic person
philogyny love of women
philologaster petty or contemptible philologist
philology study of ancient texts; historical linguistics
philomath lover of learning
philomelian of, like or pertaining to nightingales
philonoist one who seeks knowledge
philopornist lover of prostitutes
philoprogenitive of, like or pertaining to instinctive love for offspring
philosophaster amateur or superficial philosopher
philosophicide one who kills or wishes to kill philosophers or philosophy
philosophocracy government by philosophers
philosophuncule petty or minor philosopher
philotechnical devoted to the arts
philotherianism love of animals
philoxenia hospitality
philter love-potion or charm; a drug to produce some magical effect
phimosis inability to retract the prepuce of the penis
phlebography description or examination of a vein
phlebology study of the veins and their diseases
phlebotomy blood-letting
phlegmatic of a calm; unexcitable disposition
phlogiston nonexistent principle of flammability inherent in matter
phlogogenetic causing inflamation
phocine of, like or pertaining to seals
phocomelia having limbs like a seal’s flippers
phoeniceous bright scarlet-red colour
phoenicopter flamingo
pholidosis arrangement of scales, as in fish and reptiles
phon unit of loudness of sound as heard by listeners
phonascus person who maintains rhythm in church choir
phonasthenia weakness of voice
phonation production of vocal sound
phonautograph instrument for recording sound vibrations
phonendoscope device which amplifies small sounds
phonesis production of speech sounds
phoniatrics study and correction of speech defects
phonography recording of sound by means of a phonograph
phonomania pathological tendency to murder
phonometer instrument for measuring sound levels
phonophobia fear of noise or of speaking aloud
phonophorous transmitting sound waves
phonus-bolonus exaggerated trickery or nonsense
phorminx seven-stringed Greek lyre
phorometer instrument used to correct abnormalities in eye muscles
phoropter device with several lenses used to test eyesight

phoresy – 1. a nonparasitic relationship, especially among arachnids, insects or fish, in which one species is carried about by another: “The phoresy of

mule tours seemed ludicrous on the trails of the Grand Canyon, and we insisted on descending under our own power.”
Approximately 1925; from New Latin, ‘phoresia’: (same); derived from Greek, ‘phoresis’: a carrying.

phosphene light seen when the eyeball is pressed
phossy caused by phosphorus
photaesthesia sense of vision
photic light-giving; sensitive to light; penetrated by light
photism illusory vision of light
photobiology study of effects of light on organisms
photodromy motion towards light
photoglyph photographic engraving
photogyric turning towards light
photolysis disintegration resulting from exposure to radiation
photomania pathological desire for light
photometer instrument for measuring light intensity
photon unit of brightness of light as received at the retina
photophile organism loving or thriving in light
photophilous preferring or thriving in lighted conditions
photophobia fear of light
photophygous avoiding or disliking light
photopia vision in bright light
photopolarimeter instrument for measuring intensity and polarization of reflected light
photopsia appearance of light flashes due to retinal irritation
photosphere region of space lit by the sun
phototachometer instrument for measuring the speed of light
phototaxis growth or movement determined by light
phototelegraph instrument for transmitting drawings telegraphically
phototonus sensitivity to light
phraseography representation of whole phrases with individual signs or symbols
phraseology study of phrases
phratry clan or tribe
phreatic of, like or pertaining to underground water supplying or wells
phrenesis delirium; frenzy
phrenic of or near the midriff
phrenography observation and description of mental phenomena
phrenology study of bumps on the head
phrontistery a thinking-place; place for study
phthartic deadly; destructive
phthirophagous lice-eating
phthisiotherapeutics medical treatment of tuberculosis
phthongal of, pertaining to, or consisting of a sound; vocalized
phthongometer instrument measuring intensity of vowel sounds
phugoid of, like or pertaining to the longitudinal stability of aircraft
phycology study of algae and seaweeds
phygogalactic halting milk production
phylactic defending against disease
phylarchy government by a specific class or tribe
phyle division of the people of a state into local clans
phylliform shaped like a leaf
phylline leaf-like
phyllomancy divination using leaves or tea leaves
phyllomania excessive or abnormal production of leaves
phyllophagous leaf-eating
phyllophorous leafy; bearing or having leaves
phylogenesis origin and history of a species’ evolution
physagogue substance causing flatulence
physicalism belief that all phenomena reducible to verifiable assertions
physiocracy government according to natural laws or principles
physiognomancy divination by studying the face
physiognomy general appearance of anything, especially the face
physiography description of landforms or natural features of the environment
physiolatry nature-worship
physiologus work containing descriptions of animals; a bestiary
physiophilosophy system of knowledge concerning principles of natural history
physiosophy assumption of knowledge of nature
physitheism attribution of physical form and attributes to deities
physiurgic due to natural causes
phytivorous feeding on plants
phytogenesis origin and development of plants
phytogenic derived from plants
phytography description or treatise on plants
phytoid plant-like
phytology study of plants; botany
phytomania obsession with collecting plants
phytopathology study of diseases of plants
phytophilous fond of plants
phytosophy knowledge of plants
piacular expiatory; atrociously bad
pianette small upright piano
pibcorn old Welsh instrument like a hornpipe
pibroch piece of music for bagpipe
pica craving to eat dust
picamar bitter oily liquid obtained from tar
picaresque of, like or pertaining or pertaining to rogues or roguish behaviour
picaroon person who lives by his or her wits; rogue or scoundrel
picayune five-cent-piece or other coin of little value
piceous like pitch; inflammable; reddish black
pichi small dark Argentinian armadillo
pichiciego small South American armadillo
piciform of the form or shape of a woodpecker
piciform of the nature of or resembling pitch
picine of, like or pertaining to woodpeckers
pickelhaube spiked helmet
pickery petty theft under Scottish law
picksome particular; picky
pickthank sycophant; flatterer
picot loop in an ornamental edging; raised knot in embroidery
pictography representation of ideas by means of pictures
piddle nonsense
piebald of an animal, consisting of two or more colours
pied variegated; of various colours
piedroit square pillar attached to wall, lacking both base and capital
piend a salient angle
pierage fee paid for use of a pier
pieta representation of Virgin Mary with dead Christ across her knees
pietism unquestioning or dogmatic religious devotion
piezometer instrument for measuring pressure or compressibility
piggin small pail or bowl made of staves and hoops
pight to pitch
pigmentocracy government by those of one skin colour
pignorate to give or take in pledge or pawn
pigsconce blockhead
pigwash rubbish; nonsense
pika rabbit-like mountain-dwelling mammal with rounded ears
pilaster square column partially embedded in a wall
pilch fur or wool outergarment; rug laid over saddle
pilcrow paragraph-mark
pile upside-down wedge at an acute angle on a coat of arms
pileated cap-shaped; crested; capped
pileiform shaped like an umbrella
pileum top of a bird’s head
pileus umbrella-shaped portion of a mushroom
pilgarlick poor wretch; self-pitying person
piliferous bearing or growing hair
piliform shaped like hair
pillion light pillow or saddle for a woman rider
pilliwinks torture instrument for crushing fingers
pillory wooden frame with holes for head and hands used as punishment
pilose having scattered soft or moderately stiff hairs
pilule little pill
piment spiced sweetened wine
pinacotheca picture-gallery
pinafore loose protective garment worn over a dress
pinchbeck cheap copper and zinc alloy; spurious or trashy
pinder one who impounds cattle
pineal shaped like a pine-cone
pinetum collection or plantation of pine trees
pingo cone-shaped mound with ice core
pinguefy to become or make fat or greasy; to make rich
pinguid fat
pinion small wheel with teeth
pinion wing; last joint of a wing; outermost flight feather
pinnace small vessel with oars and sails
pinnate shaped like a feather
pinniped seals, walruses, and other such sea mammals
pintle bolt or pin on which something turns, as a hinge
piolet ice-axe
pipa Chinese lute
pipe unit of liquid capacity equal to two hogsheads
pipistrelle small reddish-brown bat
pipkin small pot
piqué stiff durable corded fabric of cotton, rayon or silk
piscary the right of fishing; a fishing pond
piscatology study of fishes
piscatorial of, like or pertaining to fishing or fishers
piscicapturist fisherman
piscicide substance that kills fish
piscifauna fish life of an area
pisciform shaped like a fish
piscina basin set in wall of church to drain away ceremonial water
piscine of, like or pertaining to fish
piscivorous fish-eating
pisiform shaped like a pea
pismire an ant; something or someone insignificant
pismirism hoarding of small or insignificant things
pisteology science or study of faith
pistiology doctrine concerning faith
pistolography instantaneous photography
pistology branch of theology concerned with faith
pitchometer instrument for measuring angles of ship’s propeller blades
piteous arousing or deserving pity
pityroid bran-like
pixilated bemused; bewildered; intoxicated
pizzle bull’s penis used as instrument of punishment by flogging
placage covering of walls with thin marble slabs or with plaster
placard thick metal reinforced plate of armour for back or breast
placee investor who is sold shares by private placement
placentiform cake-shaped
placentigerous bearing a placenta
placentography examination or imagery of the placenta
placentophagy eating of the placenta
placet vote of assent in a governing body
placitum decision of a court or an assembly
placket opening in a skirt or shirt for a pocket
placoid plate-like; having plate-like scales
plafond decorated ceiling
plagate marked with a streak or streaks
plage fashionable beach
plagiary one who plagiarises

plagium the crime of kidnapping

kidnapped in a car 2

plainstones flagstone side-pavement of a street
planation making level
planchet blank metal disc to be stamped as a coin
planchette board or similar tool used in interpreting spirit messages
planetesimal of, like or pertaining to asteroids or similar tiny celestial bodies
planetic erring; erratic
planetogeny theory of the origin of planets
planetography description or treatise on the planets
planetolatry worship of the planets
planetology study of planets
plangency resonance; noisiness
plangent deep or loud sounding
plangorous mournful
planigraph instrument for copying drawings at a different scale
planigraphy drawing of ground plans
planiloquent speaking plainly
planimeter instrument for measuring area of plane figures
planipennate having flat; broad wings
planish to polish; to flatten
planisphere sphere projected onto a plane; map of the heavens
planity the quality of being plane
plankwise in the manner or direction of a plank
planography cartography
planomania abnormal desire to wander and disobey social norms
planster petty or poor planner
plantar of, like or pertaining to the sole of the foot
plantigrade walking fully on the soles of the feet
plantivorous plant-eating
plantocracy government by plantation owners
plapper to make sounds with the lips
plash dash of water
plashy full of pools or puddles; marshy or boggy
plasmophagous consuming plasma
plastography art of forging handwriting
plastron fencer’s padded breast-shield; steel breastplate worn under hauberk
plataleiform spoonbilled; of the shape of a spoonbill
platband flat molding that exceeds its projection; fillet between column’s flutings
plateasm broad speech; talking with the mouth open too wide
platilla fine white linen
platiniferous bearing platinum
platitude commonplace or trite remark made as if it were important
platitudinarian one who utters platitudes
platometer instrument for measuring area; planimeter
platten to flatten into a plate or sheet
platurous flat-tailed
platypodia flat-footedness
platypussary building or pen where platypuses are kept
platysma broad sheet of muscle in the neck
plauditory issuing enthusiastic approval or applause
plaustral of, like or pertaining to a wagon
playa basin which becomes a shallow lake after heavy rainfall
pleach to intertwine the branches of
pleasance pleasure; enjoyment; complaisance
plebania mother-church having authority over several local churches
plebeian of the common people or vulgar classes
plebification making something vulgar or plebeian
plebiscitarism principle or practice of using plebiscites
plectile woven or plaited
plectrum pick for stringed instruments
pledget wad of cotton or lint used to dress a wound
plegometer instrument for measuring the strength of a blow
pleiomery condition of having more than the normal number
pleiomorphy occurrence of several distinct stages in the life cycle of an organism
plemyrameter instrument for measuring variations in water level
plenary full; entire; complete; absolute; unqualified
plenicorn having solid horns (as a deer)
pleniloquence excessive talking; fullness of speech
plenilunar of, like or pertaining to the full moon
plenilune full moon
plenipotence absolute power
plenitude fullness; completeness; abundance; sufficiency
plenum space completely filled with matter
pleochroic displaying different colours when seen from different directions
pleonasm redundancy; use of more words than necessary
pleonectic greedy; covetous
pleonexia greed; avarice
pleroma fullness; abundance
plerophory full conviction
plethysmograph instrument for measuring change in body part size due to blood flow
plethysmography measurement of variation in blood pressure
pleurotropous laterally flattened
plexiform shaped like a network
plexure network; web; interweaving
plexus network
plicated folded fanwise; pleated
plication the act of folding
plimsoll rubber-soled canvas shoe
plinth rectangular base of column or pedestal
pliofilm thin waterproof transparent sheet used for packaging
pliothermic of, like or pertaining to periods of above-average temperatures
plissé fabric with puckered finish
ploce repetition of word in more expressive sense for emphasis
plodge to trudge through anything in which the feet sink
plosion release of breath after consonant
plousiocracy government by the wealthy; plutocracy
plumassier worker in feathers; feather-seller
plumbago graphite
plumbeous leaden; lead-coloured
plumbiferous bearing or yielding lead
plumbism lead poisoning
plumbless incapable of being sounded
plumeopicean of tar and feathers
plumigerous plumaged
plumiped having feathered feet
plumulate downy
pluralism belief that reality consists of several kinds or entities
plurennial lasting or surviving many years
pluriarc West African stringed instrument like a zither
pluriliteral of more than three letters
plurinominal having more than one name
pluriparous giving birth to multiple young in a single birth
pluripresence presence in multiple places at one time
pluriserial in several rows
plutarchy government by the wealthy; plutocracy
plutocracy government by the wealthy
plutography description of the lives of the wealthy
plutolatry worship of wealth
plutology political economy; study of wealth
plutomania mania for money
pluton mass of rock solidified under earth’s surface
plutonic of volcanic or deep origin
plutonomy economics
pluvial floor-length open-fronted ecclesiastical garment
pluviograph self-registering rain gauge
pluviometer rain-meter
pluviose rainy
pneometer instrument that measures respiration
pneumatics study of mechanics of gases
pneumatographer one who receives and writes spirit messages
pneumatography description or treatise about spiritual beings
pneumatolith stone in the lung
pneumatology science of spiritual phenomena or beings
pneumatomachy denial of the divinity of the Holy Ghost
pneumatometer instrument for measuring quantity of air breathed
pneumatomorphic like a spirit
pneumatophany appearance of a spirit; especially the Holy Ghost
pneumatophilosophy philosophy of spirits or the spirit world
pneumatophony sound caused by a ghost or spirit
pneumatosis presence of gas in the body
pneumograph instrument for measuring and recording respiration
pneumography description of the lungs
pnyx ancient Athenian place of assembly
poaceous of, like or pertaining or pertaining to grass
pochette pocket notecase or wallet
pochoir manual colour stencilling onto a printed illustration
pocillator cup-bearer
pococurante uninterested; indifferent; nonchalant; apathetic
poculation drinking of alcoholic beverages
poculent fit for drinking
poculiform cup-shaped
podagra gout
podagrous gouty
podalic of, like or pertaining to feet
podex rump; anal region
podiatry study and treatment of disorders of the foot; chiropody
podiform shaped like a pod
podobromhydrosis smelly feet
podocarp stalk that bears the fruit of a plant
podology study of the feet
podoscaph pedalled boat; canoe-shaped float attached to feet for walking on water
podzol acidic soil with ash-like subsurface layer
poecilomere part of an animal’s body where colour variations first appear
poecilonym synonym; one of a variety of names for a thing
poêlée broth or stock
poephagous eating grass or herbs; herbivorous
poetaster petty poet; writer of contemptible verses
poetolatry worship of poets
poetomachia contest or quarrel among poets
pogamoggan wooden club with iron or stone piece on end, used by Indians
pogoniasis excessive growth of beard
pogonip dense fog of suspended ice particles
pogonology book or treatise on beards
pogonophile one who loves beards
pogonophobia fear of beards
pogonotomy shaving
pogonotrophy growing of a beard
pogrom organized massacre
poiesis creation
poikilitic mottled
poikilothermic cold-blooded
poimenic pastoral
pointel sharp instrument
pointillism use of separate dots of pure colour rather than blends
poise unit of viscosity of liquids
poitrel armour for a horse’s breast
poivrade pepper sauce
pokerish causing terror; uncanny
polacca stately Polish dance; polonaise
polarchy government by many people; polyarchy
polarimeter instrument for measuring polarised light
polariscope instrument for detecting polarized light
polder piece of low-lying reclaimed land
poldermitton curved reinforced armour for the right arm
pole unit of area equal to a square rod
polemarch ancient Greek military and civil officer
polemic controversial discussion or attack
polemology study of war
polemomania mania for war
polemoscope telescope with angled mirrors for seeing over walls or around corners
poleyn piece of armour for the knee
policeocracy government by police
policlinic outpatient department of hospital
poliorcectic of, like or pertaining to siegecraft or besiegement
poliosis premature graying of the hair
politicaster petty politician
politicide killing of people because of their political beliefs
politicomania mania for politics
polkamania craze for polka dancing
pollarchy government by the multitude or a mob; ochlocracy
pollard tree having the whole crown cut off
pollent strong
pollex the thumb
pollicitation promise; especially one not yet accepted
polliniferous bearing pollen
pollinigerous pollen-bearing
pollyanna one who is naively optimistic
polonaise stately Polish dance of moderate tempo
poltophagy prolonged chewing of food

polverine glass-makers’ potash
polyacoustic amplifying sounds
polyaemia plethora
polyarchy government by many people
polychotomy division into many parts
polychrest thing or medicine useful in many ways
polycracy government by many rulers; polyarchy
polydemic native to several countries
polydipsia abnormal thirst
polyergic having many functions
polyethnic consisting of or derived from many races or ethnicities
polygenesis theory that humans derived from many separate origins
polygenous of multiple origin or composition
polygoneutic having several broods in each season
polygraphy copious or productive writing
polyhidrosis excessive perspiration
polyhistor person of exceptionally broad knowledge
polylemma argument forcing choice between contradictory statements
polylith prehistoric monument consisting of many stones
polyloquent speaking much; loquacious
polymania mania affecting several different mental faculties
polymath person possessing knowledge of many subjects
polymicrian compressed into a very small space
polymythy use of multiple plots in a single story
polynesic in multiple separate locations
polynia open water amid sea ice
polyommatous having many eyes
polyonym name consisting of several words
polyopia multiple vision
polyphagous eating many types of food
polypharmacy treatment with many medicines
polyphiloprogenitive very fertile; very imaginative
polyphloisbic loud-roaring
polyphloisboisterous noisy
polyphone many-stringed instrument like a lute
polyphyletic descending from more than one original type
polypnea rapid breathing
polypod many-legged animal
polypragmatist busybody
polypsychic having several souls
polypsychism belief that one person may have multiple souls
polyptoton repetition of word in same sentence with multiple inflectional endings
polysarcous obese
polysemant word with many meanings
polystachious having many spikes
polystichous arranged in many rows
polystomatous having many mouths
polystyle building having many columns
polysyllabilingual relating to polysyllabic languages
polysyllogism series of syllogisms where each is basis for next
polysyndeton rhetorical device of repeating conjunction for emphasis
polythalamous having many chambers
polytheism belief in multiple deities
polytocous producing many or several at a birth
pomace crushed apples for cider-making
pomaceous of, like or pertaining to or consisting of apples
pomade ointment for the hair
pomander ball of perfumes
pomiculture growing of fruit
pomiferous bearing apples
pomiform shaped like an apple
pomoerium open space around a town within the walls
pomology study of fruit-growing
ponceau poppy red
ponderation weighing or weighing up
pone card player on dealer’s right responsible for cutting cards
ponent western
ponerology theological doctrine of wickedness or evil
pongee thin soft fabric woven from raw silk
poniard small dagger
pontage toll paid on bridges; tax for repairing bridges
pontifice bridge-work; a bridge
pontist bridge builder
pontlevis drawbridge
poodle coarsely looped or nubby fabric
poop enclosed structure at stern of ship above main deck
poophyte meadow plant
popinjay conceited person
popjoy to amuse oneself
poplin corded woven silk and worsted
popliteal of, like or pertaining to the back of the knee
popocracy government by populists
popple to flow tumblingly; to heave choppily
poppycock humbug; nonsense
poppyhead raised ornament on top of upright end of seats in churches
populicide killing of the population of an area or nation
poral of, like or pertaining to pores
porbeagle shark with a pointed snout
porcellanous resembling porcelain
porcine of, like or pertaining to pigs; swinish
porculation fattening or feeding of swine
porge to make meat kosher by removing veins and sinews from hindquarters
poriferous having pores
poriform having the form of a pore
poriomania abnormal compulsion to wander
porism geometrical expression of possibility of multiple solutions
porlocking irksome intrusion or interruption
pornbroker one who deals in pornography
pornerastic lecherous; bawdy; lewd
pornocracy government by harlots
pornogenarian dirty old man
pornolagnia desire for prostitutes
pornomania obsession with pornography
pornotopia perfect setting for the antics of pornography
porogamy fertilization of seed plants
poromeric permeable to water vapour
porometer instrument for measuring degree of porosity
poroplastic both porous and plastic
poroscope instrument for investigating porosity
porosis knitting together of broken bones
porphyrogenitic of royal birth
porphyrogeniture accession of 1st son born after father’s accession
porphyrous purple
porphyry beautiful and valuable purplish stone
porraceous leek-green
porrect to stretch forth; to present
porriginous suffering from a scalp disease that causes baldness
porringer small dish for soup or porridge
portatile portable
portesse portable breviary
portfire prepared paper cylinder used to fire rockets and fireworks
portière curtain hung over door of a room
portiuncle small piece of something, especially of land
portmanteau word formed by blending two existing words
portreeve mayor
posaune archaic trombone
posh nonsense
posigrade auxiliary rocket on a spacecraft
positivism doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable
posnet small cooking pot with feet and handle
posology science of quantity or dosage
possessive indicating possession; genitive case
posset milk curdled with alcohol used as remedy
post after
postament frame; pedestal
postcenal after dinner
postcibal after a meal
postconnubial after marriage
postdiluvian after the great Flood
postern back door or gate; small private door
postexilic after exile
postface concluding note added to end of written work

postiche excessively and inappropriately added to a finished work

Postiche Something that is a counterfeit not what it seems to be

wangle – Achieve something by means of trickery or devious methods. Tamper, with the purpose of deception. An instance of accomplishing something by scheming or trickery.

Postiche honesty  crocodile tears

posticous posterior; outward; extrorse
postil marginal note; commentary
postilion someone who guides posthorses
postjacent posterior; behind
postliminary subsequent
postliminy right of returned exiles to resume former status
postlude closing piece of music at end of church service
postmundane after the end of the world
postprandial after dinner
postreme lastly
postscenium part of stage behind the scenery
poststructuralism belief that there is no objective meaning to a text
postulant candidate for a religious order
postulator official who presents case for canonization or beatification
potable fit to drink; drinkable
potager garden laid out in a decorative way
potamic of, like or pertaining to rivers
potamography study of geography of rivers; a description of rivers
potamology study of rivers
potation the activity of drinking
potatory related to excessive drinking
potentiate to use drugs in combination to increase their power
potentiometer instrument for measuring electromotive forces
pother choking smoke or dust; fuss; commotion
potichomania craze for imitating Oriental porcelain
potomania abnormal desire to drink alcohol
potometer instrument measuring rate at which plants absorb water
potshop small public house
potter to busy oneself with trifling tasks
pottle small conical fruit basket
pottle unit of liquid measurement of two quarts, or one-half gallon

potto small nocturnal West African monkey

potto small nocturnal West African monkey

poudrin small ice crystals
poulard fattened or spayed hen
poulp octopus
poult young fowl
pounce fine powder spread on writing paper to keep ink from running
poundage charge for keeping stray cattle
poundal unit of force that accelerates 1 pound to 1 foot / second / second
pourboire tip; gratuity
pourparler discussion prior to negotiation
pourpointerie quilted armour with studs
poussin chicken raised for eating at around six weeks old
powellisation means of preserving timber
practive practical; concerned with practice
praedial of, like or pertaining to or connected with the land or farming
praepostor prefect of a school
pragmatica royal edict that has the force of law
pragmatism doctrine emphasizing practical value of philosophy
prairillon small prairie
pralltriller rapid musical trill
prandial of, like or pertaining to dinner
prasinous leek-green colour
pratal growing in meadows
prate to talk foolishly or sententiously; to tattle
pratincole fork-tailed, long-winged Australian bird
pratincolous inhabiting meadows or fields
pravity wickedness; depravity
praxeology study of practical or efficient activity; science of efficient action
praxinoscope early cinematograph using series of moving drawings
praxis customary practice or conduct
preadamic before Adam
preagonal immediately preceding death throes
preallable previous; preliminary; preceding
preaudience right to be heard before another
prebend stipend or salary paid to clergyman
prebendal of, like or pertaining to stipends issued by a church
precantation prophecy; foretelling
precative supplicating; expressing entreaty
precatory of the nature of or expressing a wish or recommendation
precentor leader of the singing of a church choir
preceptive concerning rules of conduct, laws or precepts
preciation evaluation of the value or price of a thing
précieuse woman affecting a fastidious over-refinement
precipitinogenic causing precipitation
precisian overly precise person; formalist
precissive separating; defining; exact
precognosce to take a precognition of
preconcert to settle beforehand
preconize to proclaim; to summon publicly
predacean predatory animal
predacious living by prey; predatory
predella platform for altar; portable altar or decoration upon it
predestinarianism belief that what ever is to happen is already fixed
predevote foreordained
predicant preaching; predicating
predicative indicating the predicate

prefatorial serving as preface or opening remarks

prefigure to imagine beforehand; to foreshadow

prefulgent extremely bright

pregustation foretaste

Prehensile Avaricious Covetous Grabby Grasping

Avaricious – Immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth. “they are avaricious and will do anything for money”


covetous – Showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages. “he was never covetous before he met her”; “jealous of his success and covetous of his possessions”. Immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth. “casting covetous eyes on his neighbour’s fields”

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Prehensile is at


Prehensor something that grasps or seizes
prelacy episcopal church government
prelapsarian belonging to the time before man’s original sin
prelate bishop or abbot of superior rank
prelation preferment; promotion; eminence
prelect to lecture
prelibation foretaste; offering of first fruits
preliography description or treatise about a battle
prelusive of the nature of a prelude; introductory
premiate to give a prize or premium for
premonish to warn beforehand
premorse ending abruptly as if bitten off
premotion divine impulse determining the will
premove to incite or prompt to action
premundane period before the creation of the earth
prenarial of, like or pertaining to or in front of the nostrils
prenticecide killer of an apprentice
prepense premeditated; intentional
prepollence predominance
prepone to reschedule for an earlier time
prepossess to bias or prejudice favourably; to impress
prepotent potent in a very high degree
preputial of, like or pertaining to the foreskin
prerupt broken off; steep; abrupt
presbycousis hardness of hearing during old age
presbyophrenia female senility marked by loss of memory
presbyte old man
presbytery part of church reserved for officiating clergy
prescind to cut off; cut short; separate
prescious prescient
prescriptivism belief that moral edicts are merely orders with no truth value
preseminal before the onset of puberty; before fertility
presenium period of life preceding old age
presentationism theory that the mind has direct access to perceived objects
presentient prescient; having a premonition
presentoir ornamental shallow tray or cup
presidial of, like or pertaining to a garrison
presidial presidential
pressible able to be pressed
prest to loan
prestigiator conjurer
prestriction blindness; blindfolding
preterist lover of the past
preterite signifying past time or a completed action
preterition passing over or omission; drawing attention to a thing by claiming to omit it
pretermit to pass by; to omit; to leave undone
preterpluparenthetical tending to use excessive parenthesis; pedantic
prevenancy courteous anticipation of others’ wishes
prevenient antecedent; preceding; anticipatory
prevernal blossoming or foliating early
prevision foresight; foreknowledge
prevoyant having foresight
Priapean of, like or pertaining to male reproductive power; phallic
priapism constant erection; licentiousness; lewdness
pricket spike or antler used as a candlestick
pridian of, like or pertaining to yesterday
prie-dieu prayer stool or kneeling bench in a church
prill nodule of metal obtained after assaying
primage fee paid to loaders for loading ship
primatology study of primates
prime prayer service held at 6 a.m.
primigenial first or earliest formed or produced
primiparous having borne only one child
primitiae first fruits
primitial of, like or pertaining to first fruits; primeval
primitivism doctrine that a simple and natural life is morally best
primo in the first place
primogenous of, like or pertaining to the earliest or first developmental stage
primrose pale yellow
princeps first; especially first edition of a book
prion small Antarctic petrel
priscan ancient; of early times
prisoptometer instrument for measuring degree of astigmatism
prithee expression of wish or request
privatism attitude of avoiding involvement in outside interests
privative indicating absence, deprivation or negation
privity privacy; secrecy; secret or confidential conversation
pro in favour of; for
pro rata proportionally
pro tanto to that extent; accordingly
proairesis the act of choosing
probabiliorism belief that when in doubt one must choose most likely answer
probabilism belief that knowledge is always probable but never absolute
proband one with a certain feature by which descendants analyzed
probang flexible rod put down throat to clear obstacle
probit unit of measurement of statistical probability
proboscidate having a proboscis or long snout
probosciform shaped like a long nose
probouleutic for preliminary deliberation
procacity petulance; insolence
procatalectic lacking the unaccented part of first foot of a line of verse
procatalepsis anticipating and answering an opponent’s objections
procathedral parish church serving as a cathedral
proceleusmatic inciting; encouraging; exhorting
procellous stormy
procephalic of, like or pertaining to the front of the head
procerity tallness
prochronism assigning a date to an event earlier than actual
procidence prolapse; falling forward or downward

Procinct – preparedness

Proclisis –  pronunciation of word dependent on following word

Proclivitous steep

Procoelous – cupped in front

Procrastinator – Someone who postpones work (especially out of laziness or habitual carelessness)

39 smokers are procrastinators skmclasses Bangalore

Smokers are Procrastinators

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Procrastinator is at


procrustean seeking to enforce uniformity
procrypsis protective coloration
proctal of, like or pertaining to the anus or rectum
proctology study of rectum
proctor disciplinary officer at a college or university
proctoscope instrument for examining the rectum
procumbent lying or leaning forward; prone
procuratory authorization to act for another
procursive running forward
procyonine of, like or pertaining to raccoons
proditor traitor
prodrome initial symptom of a disease; introductory treatise
proeguminal predisposing; preceding
proem preface
proemial introductory; prefatory
proemptosis addition of extra day to lunar calendar every 300 years
proethnic of, like or pertaining to primitive races
profectitious derived from a parent or ancestor
profligate debauched; rashly extravagant
profluent exuberant; abundant
profulgent shining out; radiant
progeria second childhood; disease of premature aging
prognathic having a jaw that projects forward
projacient jutting forward
projectionism theory that some apparent qualities of reality are projections of the mind
projicient communicating between an organism and its environment
prolate having flattened sides due to lengthwise elongation
prolation utterance
prolative indicating motion alongside or means of motion
prolegomenon introductory study or treatise
prolepsis anticipation; device where objections are anticipated
proleptical prehistoric
proleptics prognosis
prolicide killing of offspring; killing of the human race
proligerous bearing offspring
prolix long-winded; garrulous; dwelling too long on particulars
prolocutor spokesman; speaker of the House of Lords
prolusion preliminary performance, activity or display
promachos champion or defender; tutelary god
promptuary repository; reference book of facts
promulgate make known; disseminate
pronaos vestibule in front of a temple
pronasale tip of the nose
pronation turning hand and forearm so that palm faces downward
pronograde walking with body parallel to ground
pronomination description of a thing by its qualities rather than its proper name
prooemium preface
propadeuctic a preliminary study; preliminary
proper elements of Christian mass that are variable
prophetocracy government by a prophet
propine to pledge in drinking; to present or offer
propinquity closeness
propitiate to render favourable; to appease
proplasm preliminary model or mould
propolis resin of tree buds collected by bees
proprioception sense of muscular position
propugnation defence
prore prow; ship
proreption creeping attack or secretive advance of troops
prorogue to discontinue meetings of a group without dissolving it
prorrhesis preface
prosateur one who writes prose for a living
proscenium part of the stage in front of the curtain
prosector one who dissects bodies in anatomical lectures
proseuche place of prayer; oratory
prosilient outstanding; conspicuous; jumping forth
prosit toast to good health
prosodemic contagious; infectious
prosodic of, like or pertaining to versification
prosody study of versification
prosopic of, like or pertaining to the face
prosopography biographical sketch; description of person
prosopography description of an individual’s life, character, or physical form
prosopopoeia personification; representation of absent person as speaking
prospice look forward
prostyle building having columns only in the front
prosy prosaic; tedious
prosyllogism syllogism whose conclusion forms premise of another
protactic prefatory; preliminarily explanatory
protanopia colour-blindness with respect to red
protasis first clause in a conditional expression; introductory part of a play
protean variable; versatile; assuming different forms
protension duration
protensive extensive in time or length
protervity peevishness; petulance; perversity; wantonness
protestation avowal or solemn declaration
prothalamion song or poem celebrating a coming marriage
prothonotary chief registrar of a court; keeper of canonisation records
prothysteron putting last what normally comes first in an expression or argument
protistology study of protists
protocolist registrar or clerk
protogenic formed at the beginning
protogenist inventor
protolithic from the earliest Stone Age
protomorphic primordial; primitive
protopathy first or direct experience
protoplast original ancestor; first-formed person or thing
prototrophic feeding directly on uncombined elements
protozeugma zeugma in which word referring to two clauses is placed before both of them
protreptic exhorting; encouraging; didactic; doctrinal

provand allowance of food; provisions

Daddy is for allowance

provection transfer of last letter of one word to first of next
proveditor purveyor of supplies or goods
provenance source; origin
provenient issuing forth
providore steward; quartermaster
provine to propagate by layering
proxemics study of man’s need for personal space
proxenete procurer; marriage broker
proximo of next month
proxysm close or near relationship
pruinose having a frosted look; bearing whitish dust
prunella strong and heavy silk or wool
pruniferous bearing plums
prunt moulded glass ornament attached to a larger glass object
prurient stemming from the indulgence of lewd ideas; lascivious
prurigo irritating skin disease causing itching
pruritus itching of the skin
psalligraphy the art of paper-cutting to make pictures
psalmodist singer of psalms
psalmody act of singing psalms in church services
psalmography art of composing psalms
psaltery ancient stringed musical instrument
psammite fine-grained rock
psammophile sand-loving plant
psammous sandy
psellism defect in articulation or pronunciation
psephitic of, like or pertaining to pebbles
psephocracy government resulting from election by ballot
psephology study of election results and voting trends
psephomancy divination by drawing lots or markers at random
pseudacusis mistaken or false hearing
pseudaesthesia imaginary feeling or sensation
pseudandry assumption of man’s proper name by a woman
pseudaposematic imitating the coloration of a dangerous animal
pseudepigrapha apocrypha; non-canonical books of the Bible
pseudepigraphy assignment of false authors to books
pseudepigraphy false attribution of authorship
pseudepiscopy existence or rule of a spurious bishop
pseudoautochiria murder disguised as suicide
pseudoblepsis imaginary or false vision; hallucination
pseudochromaesthesia mental association of sounds with colours
pseudochronism error in dating
pseudocide pretended attempt at suicide
pseudodox false doctrine or opinion
pseudography unsatisfactory spelling
pseudography false, incorrect, or spurious spelling
pseudogyny adoption of woman’s name by a man
pseudohermaphroditism condition in which sex chromosomes and genitals are of different sexes
pseudolalia incoherence of speech
pseudolatry false worship
pseudologia lying in speech or writing
pseudologue pathological liar
pseudology art or science of lying
pseudomania irrational predilection for lying
pseudomorph false or abnormal physical form
pseudonymuncle lesser or minor writer who uses a pseudonym
pseudophonia suicide disguised as murder
pseudopsia optical illusion
pseudoptics study of optical illusions
pseudosmia false perception of odours
pseudosopher one who pretends to hold knowledge or wisdom
pseudosophy pretension to wisdom
psilanthropism denial of Christ’s divinity
psilosis loss of hair
psilosophy shallow philosophy; limited knowledge
psilothrum substance causing loss of hair
psithurism whispering noise; sound of leaves moving in the wind
psittacine of, like or pertaining to macaws, parakeets or parrots
psittacism parrot-like repetition of speech
psittacistically mechanically; in a parrotlike fashion
psoas loin muscle
psomophagy swallowing food without thorough chewing
psophometer instrument measuring audible interference of electrical current
psychaesthesia sensation in relation to feeling or thought
psychagogic attractive; encouraging
psychagogue conductor of souls to the underworld
psychalgia mental pain or distress
psychiasis healing of the soul or psyche
psychism belief in universal soul
psychobiology study of biology of the mind
psychodynamic concerning psychological motives and causation
psychofugal proceeding outward from a mental state
psychogenesis origin and development of the mind

psychogenetics study of internal or mental states

Billing only 3 of them

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Psychogenetics is given at

Psychognosy study of mentality, personality or character

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Psychognosy is at

psychogony development of the mind or soul
psychogram writing supposedly produced under influence of spirits
psychograph instrument that supposedly records spirit messages
psychography production of writing purportedly by a spiritual entity
psychologism theory that mathematical or metaphysical laws can be derived from psychology
psychomachy conflict between the body and the soul
psychomancy divination by means of spirits
psychometry measurement of intelligence and psychological attributes
psychomorphism doctrine that inanimate objects have human mentality
psychoneuroendocrinology study of relationship between the mind, the nervous system, and the endocrine
psychopannychism belief souls sleep from death to resurrection
psychopathology study of mental illness
psychophysics study of link between mental and physical processes
psychorrhagy separation of the soul from the body
psychosomatic of a physical disorder, having a psychological cause
psychosophy doctrine or theory of the soul
psychotaxis alteration of mental outlook to satisfy the personality
psychotheism doctrine that God is a purely spiritual entity
psychroaesthesia sensation of cold in part of body that is actually warm
psychrolusia bathing in cold water
psychrometer instrument for measuring air moisture or temperature
psychrophilic thriving in cold temperatures
psychrophobia fear of the cold
psychurgy mental function, operation or energy
ptarmic substance that causes sneezing
pteric of, like or pertaining to the wing or the shoulder
pteridology study of ferns
pteridomania passion for ferns
pterography treatise or description of feathers
pteronophobia fear of being tickled by feathers
pteropine of, like or pertaining to flying foxes
pterospermous having winged seeds
pterygium abnormal mass of tissue obstructing vision in the eye
pterygoid like a wing
pteryla patch or clump of feathers on a bird
pterylography treatise on the feathers of birds
pterylology study of distribution of feathers on birds
ptilosis plumage or mode of feathering; plumage
ptochocracy government by beggars or paupers; wholesale pauperization
ptochogony production of beggars; pauperization
ptosis drooping of the upper eyelid
ptyalagogue substance that promotes salivation
ptyalism excessive flow of saliva
pubarche first appearance of pubic hair
puberulent feebly or minutely pubescent; covered with minute down
pubigerous hairy; bearing or growing hair
puccoon blood-root; dark red colour
puce brownish-purple; purplish-pink
pucelage virginity
pucelle maid; virgin
puckery astringent; tending to wrinkle
pudendum external female reproductive organs
pudibund shamefaced; prudish
pudicity modesty
pudor sense of shame
pudu small Chilean deer
puericulture child-rearing
puerperal of, like or pertaining to childbirth
pug ground clay mixed with water
pugil small handful; pinch
pugioniform dagger-shaped
puisne inferior in rank; later; junior
puissant powerful; mighty
puku red Central African antelope
pulchritude beauty
pule to pipe; to whimper or whine
pulicide flea-killer

Pulicine of, like or pertaining to fleas

Pulicine Woman sucking blood ( vexing ) like Flea

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Pulicine is at

pulicoid like a flea
pullastrine of, like or pertaining to pigeons
pullet young hen
pulley-piece armour for the knee
pullulate to swarm; to teem; to breed freely; to sprout
pulmonic of, like or pertaining to the lungs
pulpitum gigantic stone screen separating cathedral choir from the nave
pulsimeter instrument for measuring the pulse
pultaceous macerated and softened; like porridge; pulpy
pulverous dusty or powder
pulverulent dusty-looking; readily crumbling; powdery
pulvil perfumed powder
pulvillar cushion-like
pulvilli pads between claws of an insect’s foot
pulvilliform shaped like a cushion
pulvinated cushion-like; bulging; pillowy
punalua marriage of brothers of one family to sisters of another
puncheon tool for punching or stamping
punctal like a point
punctate dotted; pitted
punctatim point for point
punctiform shaped like a point
punctilio minor detail or point of conduct
punctilious scrupulous and exact
punctiuncle insignificant or trifling point of an argument
punctulate bearing small spots or dots
punctule minute dot, pit or aperture
punctus point used in medieval manuscripts to indicate a short pause
pundigrion play on words; pun
punditocracy government by political pundits
pundonor point of honour

Punic woman treacherous perfidious

punic – “Punic faith”. Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans

Punic Woman skmclasses SAT GRE CAT Bangalore

Perfidious – Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans. “the perfidious Judas”.

Treacherous – Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans. “the fiercest and most treacherous of foes”; “treacherous intrigues”. Dangerously unstable and unpredictable. “treacherous winding roads”.

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Punic is at


puniceous bright or purplish red
punk dry decayed wood used for tinder
punnet small shallow fruit basket
pupate to pass through a chrysalis stage
pupigerous bearing a puparium
pupillarity the state of being a pupil
pupillography examination and description of the pupil of the eye
purblind nearly blind
purfle to ornament the edge of with embroidery
purificator cloth used to wipe Eucharist chalice
puriform like pus
purlicue curl or flourish in writing; summary of speeches
purlieu a person’s usual haunts; neighbourhood
purline supporting timber stretching across rafters
purloin to steal; to filch
purpresture encroachment on public property
purpure heraldic colour purple
purpureal purple
purser ship’s officer in charge of finances and passengers
pursuivant follower or attendant
purulence the quality of being filled with pus
Pushful energetically or aggressively enterprising
Pusillanimous lacking firmness; cowardly; having a weak character

Pustule pimple containing pus; lump or wart

Putanism lewdness in women; prostitution

putanism lewdness in women prostitution


Putative supposed; reputed
putcher wire trap for catching salmon
puteal wall round the top of a well
putid decayed; fetid
putlock cross-piece in a scaffolding
putois brush for painting pottery
putrefaction rotting
putrilage products or remnants of decay
putto plump naked winged boy in artwork
puture foresters’ claim of subsistence within bounds of forest
puy small volcanic cone
pycnometer instrument for measuring specific gravity or density
pycnomorphous compact; dense
pycnosis thickening
pycnostyle having closely spaced columns
pyelography examination of the kidney and ureter
pygal belonging to the rump end; pertaining to the rump
pygia pain in the rump
pygmachy boxing; fighting with clubs
pyknic characterized by short squat stature
pyknometer instrument for measuring specific gravities
pyogenic pus-forming
pyoid purulent; pus-like
pyramidography treatise on the Egyptian pyramids
pyranometer instrument measuring solar radiation from the sky’s whole hemisphere
pyrene fruit-stone
pyretic of, pertaining to or for the cure of fevers
pyretology study of fevers
pyrexia fever
pyrexical feverish
pyrgeometer instrument for measuring radiation from earth
pyrgoidal tower-shaped
pyrgology study of towers
pyrheliometer instrument for measuring heating effect of sun
pyriform shaped like a pear
pyritiferous bearing pyrite
pyroballogy study of artillery
pyroclastics ash and other material released by volcano
pyrogenation subjection to heat
pyrogenous produced by or producing heat or fever
pyrognomic easily made incandescent
pyrography study of woodburning; writing using hot instrument
pyrokinesis ability to start fires using mind alone
pyrolatry fire-worship
pyromachy use of fire in combat
pyromancy divination using fire
pyrometer instrument for measuring very high temperatures
pyrophanous becoming transparent when heated
pyrophobia fear of fire
pyrophorus substance that spontaneously combusts
pyroscope instrument for measuring intensity of radiant heat
pyrosis heartburn
pyrosophy knowledge of the properties of fire
pyrrhic of, like or pertaining to the dance or to the foot
pyrrhonism total or radical skepticism
pyrrhotism state of being red-haired
pyrrhous reddish; ruddy
pyrrhuline of, like or pertaining to bullfinches
pysmatic questioning; interrogatory
pythogenic produced by filth; causing dirt or decay
pythonic like an oracle or a python
pythonism possession by an oracular spirit
pyx box or vessel in which coins or consecrated Eucharist are kept
pyxis little box or casket for jewels or toiletries

(v.) to reduce the severity of (The doctor trusted that the new medication would palliate her patient’s discomfort.)
When you palliate something, you try to make something less bad: “City leaders tried to palliate effects of the trash haulers’ strike by distributing extra

large garbage cans with tight-fitting lids.”

Palliate is the word to use when you want to make something feel or seem better. Palliate doesn’t mean “cure” or “solve.” Instead, something that palliates

relieves the symptoms or consequences of something, without addressing the underlying cause. Your dentist might give you pain-killing drugs to palliate the

discomfort caused by an impacted molar, but that molar is still there, waiting to cause more trouble.

(adj.) lacking color (Dr. Van Helsing feared that Lucy’s pallid complexion was due to an unexplained loss of blood.)

(n.) a remedy for all ills or difficulties (Doctors wish there was a single panacea for every disease, but sadly there is not.)

paragon – (n.) a model of excellence or perfection (The mythical Helen of Troy was considered a paragon of female beauty.)

paragon model of excellence or perfection set by men


Paragon – An ideal instance; a perfect embodiment of a concept

paragon model of excellence or perfection


pariah – (n.) an outcast (Following the discovery of his plagiarism, Professor Hurley was made a pariah in all academic circles.)
A pariah is someone that has been soundly rejected by their community. Your constant gossiping might make you a pariah on campus.

Pariah takes its name from a tribe in Southeast India. The pariahs were drummers, sorcerers, and servants who became untouchables in Indian society because of the unsanitary jobs they did. Pariah maintains this sense of untouchableness. Pariahs are not just unliked, they are avoided at all costs. Imagine how a once popular restaurant could gain pariah status if it fails health inspections three times in a row.

parsimony – (n.) frugality, stinginess (Many relatives believed that my aunt’s wealth resulted from her parsimony.)

Pasquinade – A composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way.

pathos – (n.) an emotion of sympathy (Martha filled with pathos upon discovering the scrawny, shivering kitten at her door.)

(adj.) small in quantity (Gilbert lamented the paucity of twentieth-century literature courses available at the college.)

pedantic – of, relating to, or being a pedant(see pedant). narrowly, stodgily, and often ostentatiously learned. It may seem pedantic to harp on what looks

like mere procedure, but this is one case where the process is the forest.

(adj.) derogatory, uncomplimentary (The evening’s headline news covered an international scandal caused by a pejorative statement the famous senator

had made in reference to a foreign leader.)
Call a word or phrase pejorative if it is used as a disapproving expression or a term of abuse. Tree-hugger is a pejorative term for an environmentalist.

Coming from the Latin word for “worse,” pejorative is both an adjective and a noun. As an adjective, it means disapproving or disparaging. Hack is a

pejorative term for a bad writer. If you call someone a politician in the pejorative sense, you mean that they are scheming and out for personal gain.

Terms of abuse such as jerk and negative euphemisms such as bottom feeder are pejoratives, words you use when you want to call someone a bad name.

(adj.) easily intelligible, clear (Wishing his book to be pellucid to the common man, Albert Camus avoided using complicated grammar when composing The

A sentence that teaches a new vocabulary word should always be pellucid, that is, its style and meaning should be easily understandable so that you can

derive the definition from the sentence.

You may have heard the word lucid, which means clear. Both lucid and pellucid derive from a Latin word that means “to shine through.” Pellucid water is

clear, a pellucid sky is a particularly intense shade of blue, pellucid prose is writing that’s easy to understand, and pellucid singing is clear and light

in tone.

(adj.) miserly, stingy (Stella complained that her husband’s penurious ways made it impossible to live the lifestyle she felt she deserved.)
Don’t have two nickels to rub together? You’re penurious — a lovely long way of saying you’re flat broke.

Penurious also means a general dislike of spending money. If someone accuses you of being cheap, tell them you prefer to be thought of as penurious. It

sounds so much classier. It’s related to a similar word, penury, which means “a state of extreme poverty.”

Perfidious – (adj.) disloyal, unfaithful (After the official was caught selling government secrets to enemy agents, he was executed for his perfidious ways.)

Perfidious – Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans. “the perfidious Judas”.

Perfidious Woman skmclasses Bangalore GRE CAT SAT

Treacherous – Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans. “the fiercest and most treacherous of foes”; “treacherous intrigues”. Dangerously unstable and unpredictable. “treacherous winding roads”.

Punic treacherous character wife harassing man

punic – “Punic faith”. Tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans

Short Story describing the meaning of the word Perfidious is at


perfunctory – (adj.) showing little interest or enthusiasm ( The radio broadcaster announced the news of the massacre in a surprisingly perfunctory manner. )

pernicious – (adj.) extremely destructive or harmful (The new government feared that the Communist sympathizers would have a pernicious influence on the nation’s stability.)

perspicacity – (adj.) shrewdness, perceptiveness (The detective was too humble to acknowledge that his perspicacity was the reason for his professional success.)

pert – This sassy little adjective pert is lively and bold, like your pert best friend who storms in and demands to borrow your favorite jacket.

Although pert is found inside its synonym impertinent (rudely bold), pert can also mean stylish, like that pert fedora cocked at a jaunty angle. Someone healthy and bright-eyed is pert, too. You might be pert after a strong cup of coffee and a pep talk, or after a visit from the celebrity stylist. Although pert has been around since the 1300s — from Middle English, “unconcealed, bold” — it is also the name of a shampoo that embraces all shades of meaning of this four-letter word.

pertinacious – (adj.) stubbornly persistent (Harry’s parents were frustrated with his pertinacious insistence that a monster lived in his closet. Then they opened the closet door and were eaten.)
If you won’t take no for an answer, you’re pertinacious. The same holds true if you stubbornly push on a door despite a sign that says “pull.” Pertinacious means unyielding or perversely persistent.

We get pertinacious from the Latin pertinx, which combines per- “thoroughly” with tenx “tenacious.” You can impress your friends by dropping pertinacious into conversation when referring to anyone who is bullheaded and obstinately stuck in their ways and opinions. If a Girl Scout is a pertinacious salesperson you might buy fifty boxes of Thin Mints when you only wanted one.

phlegmatic – Yes, phlegmatic has roots in that colorless, mucousy stuff called phlegm, but people who are phlegmatic aren’t called that because they have lots of mucus.

They are just a little dull in expressing feelings or showing emotion.

It may be their training more than their natural behavior, but those palace guards who wear the red coats and big hats and show absolutely no expression on their faces are phlegmatic. Attempts to make them laugh, smile, or twist their faces in irritation won’t work, because being phlegmatic is important to their role as stone-faced keepers of the palace. Phlegmatic people show less emotion on the outside — but who knows, they may be jumping up and down on the inside.

petulance – (n.) rudeness, irritability (The nanny resigned after she could no longer tolerate the child’s petulance.)

Petulance rudeness irritability by a woman

Pilgarlic – a man looked upon with humorous contempt or mock pity. Originally pilled garlic (pilled means “peeled”), pilgarlic refers to “a bald head” or “a bald-headed man,” which it resembles. The mocking or humorous aspect followed.

(adj.) concisely meaningful (My father’s long-winded explanation was a stark contrast to his usually pithy statements.)
A pithy phrase or statement is brief but full of substance and meaning. Proverbs and sayings are pithy; newspaper columnists give pithy advice.

The root of this word is pith, which refers to the spongy tissue in plant stems, or the white part under the skin of citrus fruits. Pith is also used figuratively to refer to the essential part of something: They finally got to the pith of the discussion. Pith descends from Middle English, from Old

English pitha “the pith of plants.” In the adjective pithy, the suffix –y means “characterized by.”

(n.) an uninspired remark, cliché (After reading over her paper, Helene concluded that what she thought were profound insights were actually just


If an executive gives a speech that begins, “This business is all about survival of the fittest. You need to burn the midnight oil and take one for the

team,” his employees might get sick of listening to these meaningless clichés and tell him to cut the platitudes.

The English language contains many old, worn-out clichés, or platitudes. Phrases like “ants in your pants” and “as American as apple pie” are so overused

that they’ve almost lost their meaning. People rely on these tired old remarks when they can’t think of anything original to say. Be warned: if you throw

too many platitudes into your conversations, people are eventually going to get tired of listening to you.

(n.) an abundance, excess (The wedding banquet included a plethora of oysters piled almost three feet high.)

plaudit –

As its sound might suggest, plaudit is indeed related to “applaud” and “applause.” In fact it’s really just a fancy way of saying “praise” or


Plaudit is used more in a literary sense than in spoken English, and particularly applies to the reception of a work of art, most notably a play. In fact,

the word comes from the Latin plaudite, loudly uttered by Roman actors at the end of a play and meaning “applaud!” Kind of like cue cards for game show

audiences now.

(n.) an aggressive argument against a specific opinion (My brother launched into a polemic against my arguments that capitalism was an unjust economic


Poltophagy – thorough chewing of food until it becomes like porridge. Poltophagy was an offshoot of Fletcherism, a health fad of the Victorian era.

Nutritionist Horace Fletcher advocated chewing each mouthful 30+ times before swallowing as a method of maximizing health. Adherents of poltophagy were not

distracted from dinner conversation by chew–counts, but they nonetheless had their mouths full for much of the meal.

The word poltophagy was coined by a doctor who drew upon the Greek word poltos for his coinage, with the misunderstanding that poltos meant “masticated” or

“finely divided.” Poltos, though, means “porridge,” and this etymology has stuck to the modern word.

Poltroon – a spiritless coward. craven; cowardly

P.G. Wodehouse was fond enough of this sixteenth-century term to use it in several of his books. For example:

“Archie … was no poltroon, and had proved the fact on many occasions during the days when the entire German army seemed to be picking on him personally …”

Poltroon a spiritless coward woman

portent – (n.) an omen (When a black cat crossed my sister’s path while she was walking to school, she took it as a portent that she would do badly on her spelling test.)
While you might love crows, your father will shudder when he sees them if he superstitiously believes they’re a portent — a sign or warning — of death.

A portent is an omen of something momentous, which can be good, but is more often negative. You can use portent to mean a magical foretelling or symbol, but you can also use it to talk about something real, the way you could describe big, dark storm clouds as a portent of a thunderstorm.

potentate – A potentate is a person so powerful they don’t have to follow the rules that govern everyone else. Potentate normally refers to a king or dictator, but you

can call anyone with virtually unlimited power a potentate.

The king of a country, the conductor of an orchestra, the commander of a battleship—all of these are examples of a potentate. Take a look at potentate, and

you’ll see the word potent, which means “powerful,” as in “that’s one potent cup o’ joe!” It’s easy to see, then, how potent becomes potentate just by adding a few letters. A potentate is a powerful person. Anna Wintour is a potentate of the fashion world, and her decisions can make or break whole careers.

Prating – Speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

Prating - Husband is standing near the car as it is already late


Precocious – (adj.) advanced, developing ahead of time ( Derek was so academically precocious that by the time he was 10 years old, he was already in the ninth grade. )

predilection – A predilection is a preference for or bias toward something. If you have a predilection for wool clothing, you should take up knitting.

Predilection is based on the Latin verb praediligere, or “prefer before others,” which breaks down to prae, before, and diligere, “choose or love.” We

often use the word predilection for tendencies that people seem to have been born with, also called predispositions. If you’re a night owl, you probably

have a predilection for cities, while morning people tend to prefer the country.

presage –

A presage is a sign that something bad is about to happen, like when you get that queasy feeling in your stomach because your mom found out you skipped

band practice to go to the movies.

Presage, pronounced “PREH-sige,” can be a noun or a verb. As a noun, presage is a warning or omen of bad things to come, like a strange quiet and stillness

in the air, presage to the coming tornado. As a verb, presage means “making a prediction or giving a warning of what’s to come,” like a terrible end-of-

season football game’s outcome game that presaged the struggles the team faced the next season.

(adj.) to have foreknowledge of events (Questioning the fortune cookie’s prediction, Ray went in search of the old hermit who was rumored to be


(adj.) original, ancient (The first primates to walk on two legs, called Australopithecus, were the primeval descendants of modern man.)

(n.) virtue, integrity (Because he was never viewed as a man of great probity, no one was surprised by Mr. Samson’s immoral behavior.)
Though probity sounds like what you might do with a sharp stick, it actually means being morally and ethically above reproach, having integrity.

If you show fiscal probity, it means you are responsible and ethical with your money. The story of George Washington chopping down the cherry tree and

refusing to lie about it is a story of probity. The story was first told by a pastor, who may have made the whole thing up according to today’s scholars,

possibly to sell books –– no act of probity.

proclivity – (n.) a strong inclination toward something (In a sick twist of fate, Harold’s childhood proclivity for torturing small animals grew into a desire to become a surgeon.)

A proclivity is a natural tendency to like something, such as your sister’s proclivity for restaurants that serve hot, spicy food.

When you have a proclivity, it feels automatic — you like what you like; you don’t even have to think about it. The origin of the word proclivity supports this feeling. Proclivity comes from the Latin word proclivis, which literally means “sloping forward.” You slide toward a proclivity — no effort is needed.

You just give in to it, since you’re headed in that direction naturally.

Proclivity a strong inclination toward something

profligate – Profligate, as a noun or as an adjective, implies recklessly wasting your money on extravagant luxury. Profligate behavior is a lot of fun, but you’ll regret it later — when you get your charge card bill.

Any time someone behaves in a reckless, amoral, or wasteful way, they are engaging in profligate behavior. It usually refers to financial behavior but can cross over to social activity as well. A person who is a slave to their cravings and whose behavior is unrestrained and selfish can be called a profligate.

Extravagantly profligate behavior is often wildly fun but usually comes with a heavy price to pay in the morning, both financially and morally.

promulgate(v.) to proclaim, make known (The film professor promulgated that both in terms of sex appeal and political intrigue, Sean Connery’s James Bond was

superior to Roger Moore’s.)

(n.) an inclination, preference (Dermit has a propensity for dangerous activities such as bungee jumping.)

(adj.) favorable (The dark storm clouds visible on the horizon suggested that the weather would not be propitious for sailing.)

(adj.) plain, lacking liveliness (Heather’s prosaic recital of the poem bored the audience.)

(v.) to condemn, outlaw (The town council voted to proscribe the sale of alcohol on weekends.)
To proscribe something is to forbid or prohibit it, as a school principal might proscribe the use of cell phones in class.

Proscribe sounds similar to the word prescribe, but be careful: these words are essentially opposite in meaning. While proscribe means forbid, prescribe is

used when a doctor recommends a medicine or remedy. Of course, if you want an excuse for not following your doctor’s orders, you could say you were

confused about the meaning of these two words — but that would be lying, which is proscribed by most people’s value systems. And it would also be bad for

your health.

(adj.) able to change shape; displaying great variety (Among Nigel’s protean talents was his ability to touch the tip of his nose with his tongue.)
When Picasso is described as a protean genius, it means that not only was he brilliant, but he changed the way he worked many times. Protean means able to

change shape.

Proteus was a Greek god who could tell the future, but when he was asked a question he didn’t want to answer, he would change shapes. With someone or something protean, you get all the power of shape-shifting, plus some of the menace of a god you cannot control.

(adj.) eliciting or possessing an extraordinary interest in sex (David’s mother was shocked by the discovery of prurient reading material hidden beneath her son’s mattress.)
Something is prurient if it focuses attention on sex not in an artistic way or to teach something, but purely to appeal to your baser instincts. If something is prurient, it’s sure to offend somebody.

An MTV series that includes explicit teenage sex scenes might be considered prurient and have censors screaming to have it taken off the air. The word prurient comes from a Latin root that means literally, “to itch,” and you may have heard the medical term pruritus, which means “severe itching.” The word can also be used to describe any kind of perverse interest, like onlookers who have a prurient curiosity about the details of a particularly gory crime scene.

Puerile – (adj.) juvenile, immature (The judge demanded order after the lawyer’s puerile attempt to object by stomping his feet on the courtroom floor.)
Some people like their movies to have sophisticated humor and others prefer the more puerile humor of pratfalls or jokes about smelly underwear, inappropriate belching, and passing gas.

Although the adjective, puerile can be used to describe anything related to childhood, more often than not, it is used in a derisive manner to comment on the immaturity, silliness, or juvenile nature of something or someone. So if you hear someone talk about puerile toys, they may merely be remarking on the toys of childhood, but it is more likely they are discussing whoopee cushions, fake dog poo, and the like.

Puerile juvenile immature woman


pugnacious – (adj.) quarrelsome, combative (Aaron’s pugnacious nature led him to start several barroom brawls each month.)
Pugnacious means ready for a fight. If you’re a first year teacher, you probably don’t know how to deal with the pugnacious kids in every class. Learn some discipline or they’ll end up fighting you, or each other.

Your brother is a pugnacious thug––always ready to use his fists to settle arguments, and he has the strength to do so. That’s the literal sense of pugnacious. You can use pugnacious figuratively, too. When two candidates face off in a debate during a close election, one or the other might be pugnacious. He looks to pick a fight with his opponent and is willing to say almost anything, no matter how outrageous, to make his opponent look bad.

(n.) physical beauty (Several of Shakespeare’s sonnets explore the pulchritude of a lovely young man.)
If someone comments on the pulchritude of your face, you shouldn’t be offended. It may sound like quite the opposite, but pulchritude actually means “beauty.”

Pulchritude is one of those words that is more often commented upon for its oddness than actually used in its intended meaning. Many people dislike the sound of this word or are surprised to find that it is a synonym of beauty. These days pulchritude is considered outdated and is usually only used in highly literary writing or, in more common writing, to achieve a witty effect.

punctilious – (adj.) eager to follow rules or conventions (Punctilious Bobby, hall monitor extraordinaire, insisted that his peers follow the rules.)
A punctilious person pays attention to details. Are you always precisely on time? Is your room perfectly neat? Do you never forget a birthday or a library book’s due date? Then you are one of the punctilious people.

The adjective punctilious, pronounced “punk-TIL-ee-us,” is related to the Italian word puntiglio, meaning “fine point.” For someone who is punctilious no point is too fine, no detail too small, to be overlooked. The word is often used to describe people, but it can be used more broadly to apply to observations, behavior, or anything else that is characterized by close attention to detail.